Immunity & Normal Flora.txt

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Immunity & Normal Flora.txt
2010-06-17 11:19:50
Microbiology Immunity

Definitions for Microbiology covering Immunity and Normal flora
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  1. Sterilization
    Kills or removes all forms of living organisms
  2. Pasteurization
    Heat is applied to liquids; most viruses are inactivated; 98% of bact and fungi are killed. Some pathogens may survive.
  3. Scrubbing
    Removes many microbes mechanically.
  4. Boiling
    For 30 min. kills all vegetative forms of pathogenic bacteria; spores survive; some non-pathogens survive.
  5. X-rays
    In specific doses kills microbes; used to steralize medical items and food.
  6. Disinfectant
    Destroys vegetative cells of pathogens; does not kill spores; irritating or harmful to living tissue.
  7. Antiseptic and Bacteriostatic
    Kills or inhibits vegetative cells of pathogens but not spores.
  8. Germicide
    Kills bact but only those mentioned on product label.
  9. Asepsis
    Those practices that prevent the entry of infectious agents into sterile tissues.
  10. Ethyl or Isopropyl alcohol
    Good disinfectant; does not kill spores; inexpensive.
  11. Cidex (sonacide)
    Kills bact, spores, and viruses; used on objects; high oder.
  12. An iodine compound used on skin and objects; kills bact, fungi, ameoba and viruses.
  13. Hibiclens
    Hand disinfectant
  14. Wavecide
    Table disinfectant
  15. Fungicides
    Kill fungi including their spores
  16. Halt or hinder viral multiplication
  17. What are Normal Flora?
    Microbes that are normally and consistently present in or on parts of the body.
  18. When can Normal flora grow and cause disease?
    • When immune system is weak
    • Person is compromised
    • In radiation therapy
    • In the elderly
    • Alcoholics
  19. Found in feces and intestines
  20. Name 6 NF found in stool
    • Staphylococcus sp
    • Streptococcus sp
    • Coliforms (E. coli)
    • Candida/Monilia (yeast)
    • Bacteriodes
    • Diphtheroids (Corynebacterium sp.)
  21. Name 6 NF found in the upper respiratory tract
    • Staphylococcus sp
    • Streptococcus sp
    • Bacteriodes
    • Diphtheroids (Corynebacterium sp.)
    • Neisseria sp.
    • Haemophilus
  22. Name NF found on skini
    • Staphylococcus sp
    • Streptococcus sp
    • Diphtheroids (Corynebacterium sp.)
    • Neisseria sp.
    • Coliforms not including E. coli
  23. Name NF found in genital tract
    • Staphylococcus sp
    • Streptococcus sp
    • Diphtheroids (Corynebacterium sp.)
    • Neisseria sp.
    • Coliforms not including E. coli
    • Candida/Monilia (yeast)
    • Haemophilus
  24. Microbes that can move to other parts of the body
    transient flora
  25. What can adjust the normal flora?
  26. What parts of the body contain few or no microbes?
    • Blood
    • Larynx
    • Lower respiratory tract
    • Upper urinary tract
    • Posterior genital tract
  27. What parts of the body contain normal flora
    • Upper respiratory tract
    • Skin
    • Mucus
    • Membranes
    • GI tract
    • Anterior urethra
    • Vagina
  28. How many microbes in the mouth?
    1 billion per ml. of saliva
  29. Microbes in nose?
    20,000 per ml. of nasal fluid
  30. Microbes on skin?
    1 million per cubib cm.
  31. The entry, establishment and multiplication of pathogenic organisms within a host.
  32. A disease transmitted from host to host (common cold)
    Communicable disease
  33. Disease that is not directly transmitted from host to host
    Non-commincable disease
  34. Examples of non-communicable diseases
    • Normal flora increasing and causing disease
    • Spores entering a wound a causing a disease
  35. Disease that spreads easily from person to person
    Contagious disease
  36. Disease causing
  37. The degree of disease causing capacity posessed by a microbe.
  38. The period btwn a microbe entering the body and symptoms
  39. Poisonous chemicals produced by bacteia
    Bacterial toxins
  40. Disease caused by the toxins of bacteria (ex. Tetanus)
  41. Bacteria and their toxins in the blood and producing a reaction (blood poisoning)
  42. Only bact found in the blood stream
  43. An infection held in check by the body's defenses that can reactivate later.
    Latent infection
  44. An infection chiefly located in a confined area but may spread to other areas (tooth abscess)
    Focal infection
  45. A disease present to some degree all the time in an area (common cold)
    Endemic disease
  46. Disease increases in numbers of cases above the endemic cases.
    Epidemic disease
  47. A disease which increases and spread worldwide (flu)
  48. The body makes antibodis
    Active immunity
  49. The person is given antibodies.
    Passive immunity
  50. Substances stimulating the immune system yeilding the production of an antibody
  51. Protein molecules produced in response to a specific antigen
  52. A protein in the blood that works with antibodies against infectious microbes
  53. Substances yeilding allergic responses w/o stimulating antibody reaction
  54. A motion of the body's immune system; an attempt to protect the body against invading allergens
  55. A sudden severe, life threatening allergic reaction
  56. A skin allergic response with patchy inflammation, edema and itching
  57. Symptoms occur about 24 hrs after contact an allergen
    Delayed allergy
  58. Symptoms occur immediately
    Immediate allergy
  59. Spread from animals
  60. An inanimate object carrying an infection (towels, silverware)
  61. An insect carrying an organism of disease
  62. Tissue that secretes fluid
  63. Secreted fluid that is bad
  64. What comes out of a mucous membrane
  65. Bacteria found outside the body
    Exogenous antigen
  66. Normal flora or an exogenous antigen which ha sreproduced inside a body cell.