Biodiversity 1

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Author:
daniellemarie
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231191
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Biodiversity 1
Updated:
2013-08-29 14:17:06
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bio
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test 1
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  1. what are the characteristics of life
    • cellular organization
    • ordered complexity
    • sensitivity
    • growth, development, and reproduction
    • energy utilization
    • homeostasis
    • evolutionary adaptation
  2. what is the hierarchical organization of the bio world
    • atoms
    • molecules
    • organelles
    • cells
    • tissues
    • organs
    • organ systems
  3. what are the 4 macromolecules
    • carbs
    • fats, waxes, oils and lipids
    • proteins
    • nucleic acids
  4. what do fats, waxes, oils, and lipids all have in common
    insoluble in water
  5. what type of cell has a nucleoid
    prokaryote
  6. what is the area in a prokaryotic cell where the chromosomes are called
    nucleoid
  7. what type of cells have nucleus'
    eukaryotes
  8. what does the greek term karyos mean
    seed
  9. what is the living part of a cell called
    protoplast
  10. what is the outermost part of the protoplast
    cell/plasma membrane
  11. what characteristics of life do viruses not have
    • cells
    • sensitivity
    • reproduction
    • energy utilization
    • homeostasis
  12. what does ATP stand for
    adenosine triphosphate
  13. what type of cells don't become tissues
    unicellular
  14. what are the 4 types of tissue
    • epithelial
    • muscle
    • nerve
    • connective
  15. what type of tissue lines the body
    epithelial
  16. what type of tissues helps contract
    muscle
  17. what type of tissue communicates signals through the body
    nerve
  18. what type of tissue holds things together
    connective
  19. what do all the tissues combined make up
    organs
  20. what are the 3 domains (life forms)
    • archaea
    • bacteria
    • eukarya
  21. what type of cells are the archaea and bacteria
    prokaryote
  22. what are the kingdoms of Eukarya
    • plantae
    • fungi
    • animalia
    • protistia
  23. define biomass
    the total mass of all the living organisms in a given population, are, or other unit being measured
  24. what is another word for living organic matter
    biomass
  25. what type of cells did mitochondria come from
    Bacteria
  26. what type of cells did the nucleus come from
    Archaea
  27. What is the term of a type of cell that causes a disease
    pathogen
  28. What domain of life does not contain pathogens
    Archaea
  29. what type of charge do protons have
    positive
  30. what type of charge do neutrons have
    none
  31. what type of charge do electrons have
    negative
  32. what two particles are in the nucleus of an atom
    protons and neutrons
  33. what two particles have mass
    protons and neutrons
  34. what type of particle spins in the orbit around the nucleus of an atom
    electrons
  35. what type of particle does not contain any weight
    electron
  36. define atomic number
    # of protons found in the nucleus
  37. what is the name of the number of protons found in the nucleus called
    atomic number
  38. define atomic mass
    sum of the masses of the protons and neutrons of the atom
  39. what is the name of the sum of masses of the protons and neutrons of the atoms
    atomic mass
  40. define ion
    atoms in which the number of electrons does not equal the number of protons
  41. what is an atom called when the number of electrons does not equal the number of protons
    ion
  42. what is an ion called when it has more protons then electrons thus giving it a positive charge
    cation
  43. what is an ion called when it has more electrons than protons and carries a negative charge
    anion
  44. what is it called when an atom/molecule loses an electron
    oxidation
  45. what is it called when an atom/ molecule gains an electron
    reduciton
  46. what is another name for a hydrogen ion
    proton
  47. define isotope
    atoms of an element have the same number of protons, but not the same number of neutrons
  48. what is it called when atoms have the same number of protons but not the same number of neutrons
    isotope
  49. which isotope of carbon is unstable
    carbon-14
  50. what does it mean to be unstable
    nucleus tends to break up into elements with lower atomic numbers which emits a significant amount of energy (radioactive decay)
  51. what are the functions of carbs
    energy storage in the form of starch and glycogen, provide cellulose for the structural support in plant walls, and chitin for structural support
  52. what are the subunits of carbs
    monosaccharides
  53. what are many monosaccharaides combined by covalent bonds called
    polysaccharides
  54. what is the ratio of carbs
    1:2:1
  55. are carbs hydrophobic or hydrophilic
    hydrophilic
  56. what is the subunit of proteins
    amino acids
  57. how many amino acids make up the human body
    20
  58. what is the covalent bond that links two amino acids together called
    peptide bond
  59. what type of bond is a peptide bond
    covalent
  60. what is a long chain of amino acids hooked together called
    polypeptide
  61. what type of macromolecule contains the most enzymes
    proteins
  62. what are the subunits of lipids, fats, oil and waxes
    don't have any
  63. are lipids, fats, oils and waxes hydrophobic or hydrophilic
    hydrophobic
  64. where are lipids, fats, oils, and waxes found
    cell membranes
  65. what does it mean to be amorphous
    without shape
  66. define tissue
    a group of similar cells organized into structural and functional unit
  67. what is the name of a group of cells organized into a structural and functional unit called
    tissue
  68. define prokaryote
    a bacterium; a cell lacking a membrane- bounded nucleus or membrane bound organelles
  69. what is a cell lacking a membrane bounded nucleus or a membrane bound organelle called
    prokaryote
  70. define organ
    a body structure composed of several different tissues grouped in a structural and functional unit
  71. what is a body structure composed of several different tissues grouped in a structural and functional unit called
    organ
  72. what is the specialized part of a cell; literally a small cytoplasmic organ
    organelle
  73. define organelle
    combine macromolecules that have a specialized part of the cell
  74. define molecule
    atoms hooked by bonds
  75. what are atoms hooked by bonds called
    molecules
  76. what is the maintenance of a relatively stable internal physiological environment in an organism that usually involves some type of feedback loop
    homestasis
  77. define homeostasis
    the maintenance of a relatively stable internal physiological environment in an organism that usually involves some type of feedback loop
  78. define eukaryote
    cell characterized by having a membrane-bound organelles (nucleus)  and that possesses chromosomes whose DNA is associated with proteins
  79. what is the name of cell characterized by having membrane bound organelles and that possesses chromosome whose DNA is associated with proteins
    eukaryote
  80. define ATP
    ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE- a nucleotide consisting of adenine, ribose sugar, 3 phosphate groups- energy currency of cellular metabolism in all organisms
  81. what is the nucleotide consisting of adenine, ribose sugar, and three phosphate groups called
    ATP
  82. what is the energy currency of cellular metabolism in all organisms called
    ATP
  83. what is the smallest unit of an element that contains all the characteristics of that element
    atom
  84. define atom
    the smallest unit of an element that contains all the characteristics of that element- building block of matter
  85. what is the building block of matter
    atoms
  86. what is the greek word for life
    bio
  87. what is the greek root for study of
    logy
  88. what is the greek word for seed
    karyos
  89. what 3 atoms are in carbs
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
  90. what 3 atoms are in lipids, fats, oil, and waxes
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
  91. what is the difference between the atoms in carbs and the atoms in lipids
    lipids don't have a 1:2:1 ratio
  92. what atoms are in proteins
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
    • nitrogen
    • sulfur
  93. can antibiotics kill viruses
    no
  94. what atoms make up nucleic acids
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
    • nitrogen
    • phosphorus
  95. what is the subunit of nucleic acids
    nucleotides
  96. what 3 things make up nucleotides
    • nitrogenous base
    • sugar
    • phosphate
  97. what do all life forms use to store energy
    ATP
  98. what does DNA stand for
    deoxyribonucleic acid
  99. what contains the heredity info that can be used to be expressed as a protein or passed along
    DNA
  100. what does RNA stand for
    ribonucleic acid
  101. what is it called when DNA is copied into DNA
    replication
  102. what is it called when DNA changes to RNA
    transcription
  103. what is it called when RNA is made into proteins
    translation
  104. what enzyme allows DNA to be replicated into itself
    DNA polymerase
  105. what is the molecule that acts as an enzyme and allows RNA to copy itself without a protein being involved called
    ribozyme
  106. what enzyme transcribes DNA into RNA
    RNA polymerase
  107. what stops RNA from translating into proteins
    antibodies
  108. what translate RNA into proteins
    ribosomes
  109. do ribosomes have membranes
    no
  110. what is the difference between Eurkarya, Bacteria, and Archaea chromosomes
    • Eukaryote-  DNA and histones, linear, DNA is wrapped around the histones
    • Bacteria- no histones, circular, doubled stranded DNA
    • Archaea- some DNA around histones, histones almost identical to Eurkarya histones
  111. how many stands of DNA are there
    2
  112. how many strands of RNA are there
    1
  113. what are the nitrogenous bases of DNA
    • Adenine
    • thymine
    • guanine
    • cytosine
  114. what are the nitrogenous bases of RNA
    • uracil
    • adenine
    • guanine
    • cytosine
  115. what sugar (pentose) makes up DNA
    deoxyribose
  116. what sugar (pentose) makes up RNA
    Ribose
  117. what term is used to name organisms
    taxonmy
  118. what is the system of naming organsims called
    bionomial system of nomenclature
  119. what is the term that means still leaving
    extant
  120. what is the term that means gone forever
    extinct
  121. what does it mean to be a species
    can mate and produce fertile offspring
  122. who published a book that describes binomial naming
    Carl Vohn Linnae
  123. what is the name Linnae gave himself
    Linnaues
  124. when did Linnaues publish his book of the binomial naming system
    May 1, 1753
  125. what does the greek word nephron mean
    kidney
  126. what does the greek word neis mean
    boat
  127. what is the hierarchical organization of organisms
    • species
    • genus
    • family
    • order
    • class
    • subphylum
    • phylum
    • kingdom
    • domain

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