Anatomy and Physiology – I

Card Set Information

Anatomy and Physiology – I
2013-08-30 18:28:46
Anatomy Physiology – Dr Smith

Test one
Show Answers:

    study of body structure
    study of body function
  3. Metabolism
    All chemical processes in the body

    • ·Catabolism = breakdown of complex chemical
    • substances into simpler components

    • ·Anabolism = building up of complex chemical
    • substances from smaller, simpler components
  4. Homeostasis
    The dynamic condition of keeping the body’s internal environment relatively stable (in equilibrium) due to the constant interaction of the body’s many regulatory processes
  5. Anatomic Position
  6. Cephalic
    Toward the head
  7. Sagittal plane
    Vertical plane that divides body into right and left sides

    • Midsagittal plane
    • divides body into equal R&L sides

    • Parasagittal plane 
    • divides body into unequal R&L sides (like thru the eye)
  8. Frontal(coronal) plane
    Divides body or an organ into anterior and posterior portions (front and back)
  9. Transverse plane
    Divides the body or organ into superior and inferior portions (top and bottom)
  10. Oblique plane
    ·Passes through the body at an angle

    ·Between transverse and sagittal

    ·Between transverse and frontal
  11. Clinical sign
    • can be measured or observed said to be an “objective” finding
    • (IE temp, color, size, or amount)
  12. Clinical symptom
    complaint by the patient said to be a “subjective” finding

    (IE not feeling well)
  13. Superior 
    Toward the head, or the upper part of a structure

    (IE: The heart is superior to the liver)
  14. Inferior
    Away from the head, or the lower part of a structure

    (IE: The stomach is inferior to the lungs)
  15. Anterior
    Nearer to or at the front of the body

    (IE: The sternum is anterior to the heart)
  16. Posterior
    Near to or at the back of the body

    (IE: The esophagus is posterior to the trachea) 
  17. Medial
    Nearer to the midline

    (IE: The ulna is medial to the radius)
  18. Lateral
    Farther from the midline

    (IE: The lungs are lateral to the heart)
  19. Intermediate
    Between 2 structures

    (IE: The transverse colon is intermediate between the ascending and descending colons)
  20. Ipsilateral
    On the same side of the body as another structure

    (IE: The gallbladder and ascending colon are ipsilateral)
  21. Contralateral
    On the opposite side of the body from another structure

    (IE: The ascending and descending colon are contralateral) 
  22. Proximal
    Nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk; nearer to the origination of a structure

    (IE: The shoulder is proximal to the hand)
  23. Distal
    Father from the attachment of a limb to the trunk; Farther from the origination of a structure

    (IE: the hand is distal to the shoulder) 
  24. Superficial (External)
    Toward or on the surface of the body

    (IE: the ribs are superficial to the lungs)
  25. Deep (internal)
    Away from the surface of the body

    (IE: the ribs are deep in the skin of the chest and back
  26. Cranial Cavity
    Formed by cranial bones and contains the brain
  27. Thoracic cavity
    chest cavity
  28. Abdominal cavity
    Contains stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of the large intestine
  29. Embryology 
    • Embry- embryo
    • ology-study of

    Structures the emerge from the time of the fertilized egg through the 8 week in utero
  30. Histology
  31. Pathological Anatomy

    Structural change associated with disease 
  32. Neurophyslology 
    neuro- nerve

    Functional properties of nerve cells
  33. Endocrinology
    • endo- within
    • -crin- secretion

    Hormones and how they control body functions
  34. Immunology
    immun- not susceptible

    How the body defends itself against disease-causing agents
  35. Pathophylology
    Functional change associated with disease and aging 
  36. Chemical element
    substance that cannot be made into smaller units of other substances by ordinary reactions
  37. Electric charge 
    • is a physical property of matter which causes it to experience a force when near
    • other electrically charged matter 

    (like a magnet "push-pull")
  38. Electric charge two types
    • ·positive (+)
    • ·negative (-)

    • With charged particles:
    • Likes repel…….Opposites attract
  39. Atoms:

    ·Protons (+ charge)

    ·Neutrons (no charge)

    Electrons (- charge) 
  40. Normally an atom should have the same number of protons (+) and electrons (-), therefore it has no net charge (neutral)
  41. Atomic number of element 
    number of protons
  42. Isotopes
    • different forms of an element that contain the same number of protons but different
    • number of neutrons.

    • Isotopes of an element have identical chemical properties because they have the same number of protons (atomic number)
  43. Chemical element
    substance that cannot be made into smaller units of other substances by ordinary means
  44. Molecule
    formed when two or more atoms create a bond by sharing electrons (e’s)
  45. Compound
    substance formed from atoms of 2 or more different elements

    Soo….H2 and O2 are molecules but not compounds; H2O is both a molecule and a compound
  46. Ion
    • forms when an atom gives up (donates) an electron from or gains (accepts) an
    • electron(s) to it’s outer (valence) shell

    Produces an atom with a (+) or (-) charge because it then has an unequal number of protons and electrons

    • Therefore, an ion =
    • an atom or molecule with a net charge
  47. A (+) ion (called a cation) 
    has given up (lost) an electron (-)
  48. A (-) ion (called an anion) 
    has accepted (gained) an extra electron(-)
  49. Ionic bonds: 
    formed by the attraction between (+) and a (-) charged ions

    o Cations are (+) charged ions

    o Anions are (-) charged ions
  50. Covalent Bonds
    are formed when atoms share pairs of electrons

  51. Nonpolar bond
    atoms share electrons equally
  52. Polar bond 
    • when the e’s of a covalent bond are shared unequally making one end of the molecule
    • partially (+) and the other partially (-)

    (water is a polar molecule) 
  53. Hydrogen Bond
    • A special polar bond formed when a Hydrogen atom at the partial (+) charged end of a polar molecule attracts the partial (-) charged end of a nearby polar
    • molecule–

    So a hydrogen bond shares some properties with both covalent bonds and ionic bonds in that the oppositely charged ends of polar covalently bound molecules attract each other in the same way that ionic compounds attract each other
  54. Free Radicals
    ·A free radical is an atom or group of atoms with an unpaired electron in the outermost shell

    • ·This makes the free radical highly reactive
    • and unstable

    • ·In so doing, free radicals may break apart
    • important body molecules…… changing molecular structure can lead to genetic mutations, cancer, and other diseases
  55. The arrangement of atoms within a molecule determines the shape of a molecule; taking on a variety of geometric forms.
    The shape of a molecule helps determines it properties, like how it tastes and smells.