ENTM 206

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Anonymous
ID:
231205
Filename:
ENTM 206
Updated:
2013-09-10 10:04:54
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Unit
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Description:
Insects
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  1. Hierarchical Classification
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  2. Main Classes of Arthropods
    • Arachnida
    • Crustacea
    • Chilopoda
    • Diplopoda
    • Insecta
  3. Common name of Chilopoda
    Centipedes
  4. External Characteristics of Arthopoda (5)
    • 1. Bilateral symmetry
    • 2. Body divided into segments
    • 3. a pair of appendages on each body segment
    • 4. segmented appendages
    • 5. body covered with continuous cuticle
  5. Internal Characteristics of Arthopoda (3)
    • 1. Dorsal contractile heart situated in pericadail sinus
    • 2. Ventral nervous system with two nerve trunks
    • 3. fore gut, hind gut, repository tract and ducts of glads are lined with cuticle
  6. Characteristics of Crustacea
    Body regions
    number of antennae
    number/kind eyes
    number legs
    Misc.
    • cephalothorax & abdomen
    • 2 pairs, rarely 1
    • 1 pair, compund
    • 5-7 pairs
    • swimmerets, gills
  7. Characteristics of Diplopoda
    Body regions
    number of antennae
    number/kind eyes
    number legs
    Misc.
    • Head and Trunck
    • 1 pair
    • 1 pair compound, or simple clusters
    • 2 pairs/body segment
    • round body
  8. Characteristics of Chilopoda
    Body regions
    number of antennae
    number/kind eyes
    number legs
    Misc.
    • Head and Trunk
    • 1 pair
    • 1 pair compound or simple clusters
    • 1 pair/ segment
    • flat body, poison jaws
  9. Characteristics of Arachnida
    Body regions
    number of antennae
    number/kind eyes
    number legs
    Misc.
    • Cephalothroax
    • 0
    • 6-8 simple
    • 4 pairs
    • spinnerets
  10. Characteristics of Insecta
    Body regions
    number of antennae
    number/kind eyes
    number legs
    Misc.
    • Head, thorax, abdomen
    • 1 pair
    • 1 pair compound
    • 3 pairs
    • wings in some
  11. Evolution of insects
    • Unknown acestor- gut
    • Stage 1. Annelida/Earth worm- body divided into sections, coelom- body cavity
    • Stage 2. Onychophora- Unjointed appendages, eyes and antennae
    • Stage 3. segmented legs, sensory organs up, first post oral segments (POS) for food
    • Stage 4. POS 2-4 become mouthparts, POS 1 lost in head, Trilobita- divide into chelicerata & Mandibulata
    • Stage 5. Organization of 2 body segments into seen for classes
    • Stage 6. body into three segments for insecta, Thorax in 3 segments, legs on throax, loss abdominal legs
  12. Layers of Exoskeleton
    • Epicuticle:
    • Cement layer
    • Waxy Layer
    • Polyphenol layer
    • Cuticulin
    • Exocuticle:
    • Enodcuticle:
    • Epidermis
  13. Function of Epidermis
    • Attach musles
    • living
    • excretes cuticle
  14. Function of Epicutile layers
    • Cement layer- hard
    • Waxy layer- water proof
    • Polyphenol layer- alcohol
    • cuticulin- fatty acids and proteins
  15. Function of Exocuticle
    Color and hardness
  16. Endocutile
    Soft flexible, chitin
  17. Sequence of Molting
    • Step 1 Apolysis: cuticle separates from epidermis
    • Step 2: enzymes secreted by epidermis to dissolve majority of endocuticle
    • Step 3: Epidermal cells multiply
    • Step 4: Epidermal cells secret new epicutical and procuticle
    • Step 5: insect escapes from exuvium (old cuticle)
    • Step 6: chemicals secreated to hardedn pourter part of procutile and form exocuticle
    • Step 7: Melanization of cuticle occurs
  18. Seta
    • Trichogen cell (secreates hair)
    • Tormogen cell (secreates socot)
    • Nerve out the bottom
  19. Specialized cuticular structures
    • Spurs- multicelluar and movable
    • Spines- multicellar not movable for defense
  20. Advantages of Exoskeleton
    • Protection for internal organs
    • Protection from evaporation, disease, organisms
  21. Disadvantages of Exoskeleton
    • limits size of insect
    • limits about of food storage
    • limits movement of appendages
    • Limits tactile senses
    • no mans of heat regulation
  22. Areas of the Head (4)
    • Vertex- btw eyes and above antennae
    • Frons- face- front part
    • Clypeus- middle rectangular part
    • Gena- check
  23. Principal Sutures of the Head (3)
    • Ecdysial Cleavage Line- top split
    • Fontoclypeal suture
    • clypeolabral suture
  24. Appendages of the Head (3)
    • Paired antennae
    • paired compound eyes
    • Ocelli- simple eyes (1-3)
  25. Mouthparts
    • Labrum- upper lip, not a true Mouthpart
    • Mandible- From POS 2, incisors and molars
    • Maxilla- from POS 3
    • Labium- From POS 4, lower lip

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