Phase contrsast (works on diffraction can see live)
Confocal (scans at different planes to get 3D)
Electron (uses short wave electron beams to get high mag and resolution)
What are the 2 types of electron microscopes
Scanning - scans e- beam across specimen covered in heavy metal, makes 3D image
Transmission - electromagnetically focused beam at high voltage scans through tissue, still needs heavy metal preparation
What is autoradiography
uses radioactive precursors on silver grains to localize cell components
What is meant by histochemical techniques
When specific enzymes activities are used to produce visible products at specific enzyme locations
What is immunohistochemistry
based on reaction between an antigen and antibody
Direct immunohistochemistry is? indirect?
if cell or tissue antigen is detected directly by binding to primary antibody
unlabled primary antibody is detected as bound by a labled secondary antibody
What is in situ hibridization
detect microscopically a specific gene or mRNA sequence using a labelled complementary probe
is tissue composed of only intracellular material?
NO extracellular as well
While many cells may appear similar in structure what could makre them behave very differently
Different receptors (ex. uterine smooth muscle compared to normal)
All tissues in the body are derived from what cells?
Stem cells or blastomeres during the first differentiation forming the inner cell mass
What is cytosol?
Fluid filling the cyytoplasm
in addition to organelles what else can be found in the cytoplasm of a cell
inclusions (fat, pigment, carbs)
List 5 or so functions of the cell membrane
Constant ion gradient
Interactions with environment
Polar on one side and non polar on the other
What is the glycocalyx
Cell surface coating coming from extended lipids and glycoproteins
integral proteins vs peripheral proteins
integral = directly incorporated into lipid bilayer
peripheral = looser association with 1 of 2 membranes
Which type of membrane protein would be harder to extract, integral or peripheral
integral, would need to break the membrane essentially
What do you call a protein that spans the embrane multiple times
Multipass transmembrane protein
Are all proteins bound tightly in spot by the membrane?
No many are loose and active in the fluid mosaic membrane
give 3 ways proteins can become more anchored in spot in the membrane
tight junction attachment can solidify the structure
Large enzyme complexes are kept on lipid raft of high cholesterol to decrease mobility
What jkind of molecules pass through the membrane through simple diffusion
Small lipophilic molecules
How do most ions get in pass the membrane (2)
ion channels or ion pumps
Channnel proteins would be what kind of membrane protein
osmosis would occur mostly through the use of what trans membrane protein
3 general types of endocytosis
fluid phase endocytosis
receptor mediated endocytosis
What is transcytosis
if it simply engulfes and moves to other side of the cell and spills back out.
Essentially transportation to the basolateral membrane
WHat two things often coat pits about to perform endocytosis
How do endosomes break what they engulf apart?
BY using ATP driven H pumps to acidify
Are most membrane receptors used for endocytosis reused? HOw do they break them from their ligand?
Yes through the acidicfication fo the endosome
WHat kind of cell would we mostly expect to see transcytosis in?
bulk movement of large molecules OUT of the cell is called?
Exocytosis is often caused by?
TRansient increase in Ca+
Which memebrane wpould we expect epithelial cells to do exocytosis at and what would this be classified as?
!!What are the two types of secretion!!
Constitutive secretion - constamnt as soon as done being produced
Regulated secretion - only released when appropriate signal comes
What is the process of membrane trafficking?
When a cell does endocytosis the memebrane shrinks as the membvrane becomes part of the vesicle, the opposite happens when exocytosis occurs
When a vacuole undergoes further invagination and gets a subpopulations of vesicles within it we call this? When they merge with lysosomes what happens? When this vacuole undergoes exocytosis what will happen
multi vesicular bodies
Small exosomes will be released (packets)
What are gap junctions
Direct channels with which cells can communicate through without ever reaching the ECM
what are 5 kinds of route signal molecules can take to get to their receptors
Endocrine - carried by blood
Paracrine - metabolized quickly so only act on very local cells
Synaptic - special kind of paracrine used in synapses
autocrine - signals bind receptors on the same cell type that produced the message
juxtacrine - signal molecules remain part of the membrane and bind their receptor when the 2 cells make physical contact (mostly used in early embryonic development)
hydrophilic signalling molecules receptors are mostly?
transmembrane proteins found in the plasmalemma
!!!what are 3 important functional classes of receoptors?!!!
Channel linked receptors - open upon binding to allow ions to transfer