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a serious, progressive loss of mental abilities such as thinking, remembering, reasoning and communicating
A progressive, degenerative, and irreversible disease that is a form of dementia; there is no cure.
microorganisms that are capable of causing infection and disease.
a loss of function of lower body and legs.
the first part of the small intestine. where the common bile duct enters the small intestine.
tiny, grape-like sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs.
the pulse on the inside of the wrist, where the radial artery runs just beneath the skin.
the pulse on the left side of the chest, just below the nipple.
blue or pale skin and/or mucous membranes due to decreased oxygen in the blood.
6 principles of care
- Infection control
Heimlich maneuver ( abdominal thrusts)
- 1. stand behind patient and put your arms around their waist.
- 2. make a fist with one hand and put the thumb-side between the pt. naval and the bottom of their rib cage.
- 3. place your other hand over your fist.
- 4. give a hard, upward thrust against the pt. abdomen
care used after rehabilitation to maintain a person's function and increase independence.
bending a body part
moving a body part away from the midline of the body
moving a body part toward the midline of the body
for people who have special needs. for example may be used for a resident who has gone into shock and has poor blood flow.
position in which a person is in a semi-sitting position (45-60 degrees).
position in which a person is lying flat on his or her back.
the way the parts of the body work together when a person moves.
good body alignment allows the body to function at its highest level. Also helps prevent complications of immobility, such as contractures and atrophy.
the part of the nervous system inside the vertebral canal that conducts messages between the brain and the body and controls spinal reflexes.
actions, or failure to act or give proper care, that results in injury to a person.
a course of action to be followed.
a method, or way, of doing something.
- Rescue the resident
- Activate the alarm
- Confine/contain the fired
- Pull the pin
- Aim to the bottom of the fire
- Squees the handle
- Sweep side to side
Federal law that includes minimum standards for nursing assistant training, staffing requirements, resident assessment instructions, and information on rights for residents
California code of regulations that all nursing facilities must use.
people who are required to report suspected or observed abuse or neglect due to their regular contact with vulnerable population, such as the elderly in long-term care facilities.
person assigned by law as the legal advocate for residents.
is information based on what you see, hear, touch, or smell; it is collected using four of the five senses: sight, hearing, smell and touch. It is also called "signs"
is information collected from something that residents or their families reported to you, and it may or may not be accurate it is also called "symptoms"
Diabetes Type 1
Is a condition that is usually diagnosed in children and young adults. It was formerly known as juvenile diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not produce any insulin.
Diabetes type 2
is the most common form of diabetes; it can occur at any age. It was formerly known as adult-onset diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, either the body does not produce enough insulin or the body fails to properly use insulin.
a federal law that sets standards for protecting the privacy of patients health information
S/S of dehydration
- severe thirst
- Dry mouth and mucous membranes
- Cracked lips
- Dry, warm, wrinkled, or clammy skin
- Sunken eye
- Low blood preassure
swelling in body tissues caused by excess fluid.
the state resulting from pathogens invading and growing within the human body.
a condition caused when the blood supply to the brain is cut off suddenly by a clot or a ruptured blood vessel; also called a stroke
S/S of CHF
- Reduction in the ability to exercise or be active
- difficulty breathing, or dyspnea
- increased pulse
- chest pain
Blood preasure ranges
- Systolic 100-119
- Diastolic 60-79
S/S of approaching death
- Cyanotic, pale, or darkening skin or mucous membranes
- Cold skin
- Skin that looks bruised
- Heavy perspiration
- Extreme weakness and exhaustion
- loss of muscle tone
- Fallen jaw, causing the mouth to stay open
- Decreased sense of touch
- Loss of feeling, beginning in the legs and feet
- lost of vision
- Dry mouth
- Decrease appetite and sense of thirst
5 stages of grief
4 stages of pressure ulcers
- 1. Reddened skin
- 2. Blistering or breakdown of the top layer of the skin
- 3. Breakdown of the lower tissue
- 4. involvement of muscle, bone, nerves, and blood vessels.
How to prevent pressure ulcers
- identifying persons at risk and assessing the skin for signs of problems
- Changing the sheets and persons position
- Attempting to maintain nutrition
- Providing bedding and seating surfaces which support from friction
- Refraining from massages over bony prominence
- Knock the door
- Introduce yourself
- Ask permission to come in
- Put the side rail up
- Lower the bed to its lowest position
- Leave call light witting reach
- Wash your hands and thank the resident
Urine observation 4
- Cloudy urine
- Dark or rust-colored urine
- Strong, offensive, or fruity-smelling urine
- Blood, pus, mucus, or discharge in urine
is the term used for a resident leaving the facility without staff knowledge.
S/S of hypoglycemia (insulin reaction)
- Rapid pulse
- Low blood pressure
- Cold, clammy skin
- Confusion Trembling
- Blurred vision
- Numbness of the lips and tongue
S/S of hyperglycemia (diabetic ketoacidosis)
- Nausea and vomiting
- Loss of appetite
- Blurred vision
- Rapid, weak pulse
- Low blood pressure
- Dry skin, dry mouth
- Flushed cheeks
C.N.A. responsibilities with the new admits
- Inventory of resident personal items
- Vital signs
Endocrine system organs
- Ovaries (in female)
- Testes (in male)
Cardiovascular system organs
C.N.A guidelines and renewal
- completing 160 hours of training, including 60 hours of theory class and 100 hours of clinical skills training
- passing state test
- Renewing certification every two years
exercises to put a joint through its full arc of motion that are done by a resident alone, without help.
exercises to put a joint through its full arc of motion that are done by staff without the residents help.
- Oral 98.6
- Rectal 99.6
- Axillary 97.6
- Timpanic 98.6
Musculoskeletal system organs
- Muscles: 600 in the human body.
- 1. skeletal muscles. voluntary muscles
- 2. Smooth muscles. involuntary muscles
- 3. Cardiac muscles. involuntary muscles
- Bones: 206 in the human body.
- 1. Long bones
- 2. Short bones
- 3. Flat bones
- 4. Irregular bones