written by Giovanni Boccaccio which pinpointed the cause of the spread of the Black Death
Causes of Hundreds Years War
-vassalage of England to France
-lasted do long due to French Civil War
-economic factors in the wool trade and control of towns
Joan of Arc
Leader of French troops and led France to many victories, including Battle of Orleans. Was captured by English, convicted of heresy and witchcraft, and burned at the stake.
Effects of Hundreds Years War
-massive loss of population for France
-ruined rural economy and destroyed farmland
-England spent massive amounts of money but economy opened up.
-English parliment developed
Pope Innocent III
Sponsored 4th Crusade and built up papacy. He convoked the fourth Lateran Council.
College of Cardinals
The function of the college is to advise the Pope about church matters when he summons them and convenes on the death or resignation of a pope as a papal conclave to elect a successor.
was a missionary who propagated Christianity in the Frankish Empire during the 8th century. He is the patron saint of Germany and the first archbishop of Mainz.
a meeting of Roman Catholic cardinals secluded continuously while choosing a pope
Pope Boniface VIII issued the Papal bull Unam sanctam, and propositions on the unity of the Catholic Church, the necessity of belonging to it for eternal salvation, and the positionof the pope as supreme head of the church.
the period from 1309 to 1378, during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon, in France, rather than in Rome. This situation arose from the conflict between the Papacy and the French crown.
absence from Rome when Clement V declined to move to Rome, remaining in France, and in 1309 moved his court to the papal enclave at Avignon, where it remained for the next 67 years.
consists of a group of officials who assist in the governance of a particular Church.