Exploration and Renaissance

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Exploration and Renaissance
2013-08-25 22:28:13
AP Euro

Vocab terms
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  1. Giotto
    Giotto di Bondone, better known simply as Giotto, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence in the late Middle Ages. He is generally considered the first in a line of great artists who contributed to the Italian Renaissance
  2. Donatello
    Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi, better known as Donatello, was an early Renaissance Italian sculptor from Florence.
  3. Leonardo da Vinci
    Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci was an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer.
  4. Raphael
    Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, better known simply as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.
  5. Michelangelo
    Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, commonly known as Michelangelo, was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.
  6. Mannerism
    A style of 16th-century Italian art preceding the Baroque, characterized by unusual effects of scale, lighting, and perspective, and the use of bright, often lurid colors. It is particularly associated with the work of Pontormo, Vasari, and the later Michelangelo.
  7. Slavery in the Renaissance
    Black servants were highly valued for their exotic appeal and bought in part as a status symbol and display of wealth.
  8. Charles VIII
    King of France from 1483, known for beginning the French expeditions into Italy that lasted until the middle of the next century.
  9. Alexander VI
    Aided militarily and politically by his son Cesare Borgia, reasserted papal authority in the  papal lands
  10. The Borgias
    The Borgias became prominent in ecclesiastical and political affairs in the 15th and 16th centuries, producing two popes, Alfons de Borja who ruled as Pope Callixtus III during 1455–1458 and Rodrigo Lanzol Borgia, as Pope Alexander VI, during 1492–1503.Especially during the reign of Alexander VI, they were suspected of many crimes, including adultery, simony, theft, bribery and murder (especially murder by arsenic poisoning). Because of their grasping for power, they made enemies of the Medici, the Sforza, and the Dominican friar Savonarola, among others. They were also patrons of the arts who contributed to the Renaissance.
  11. Julius II
    Greatest art patron of the papal line (reigned 1503–13) and one of the most powerful rulers of his age. Although he led military efforts to prevent French domination of Italy, Julius is most important for his close friendship with Michelangelo and for his patronage of other artists, including Bramante and Raphael. He commissioned Michelangelo’s “Moses” and paintings in the Sistine Chapel and Raphael’s frescoes in the Vatican.
  12. Niccolo Machiavelli
    Italian Renaissance political philosopher and statesman, secretary of the Florentine republic, whose most famous work, The Prince, brought him a reputation as an atheist and an immoral cynic.
  13. The Prince
    A short treatise on how to acquire power, create a state, and keep it, the work was an effort to provide a guide for political action based on the lessons of history and his own experience as a foreign secretary in Florence.
  14. Taxes on the poor
    Had difficulty finding in the book, but were rather extensive I'm sure.
  15. Estates General
    In France of the pre-Revolutionary monarchy, the representative assembly of the three “estates,” or orders of the realm: the clergy and nobility—which were privileged minorities—and a Third Estate, which represented the majority of the people.
  16. Ferdinand and Isabella
    Catholic monarchs that united the territories of Spain into a single kingdom. Funded Christopher Columbus' voyage to the New World. Attempted to convert or expel most of the Jewish and Muslim populations in Spain.
  17. War of the Roses
    Were a series of dynastic wars fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the houses of Lancaster and York for the throne of England. The final victory went to a relatively remote Lancastrian claimant, Henry Tudor, who defeated the last Yorkist king Richard III and married Edward IV's daughter Elizabeth of York to unite the two houses. The House of Tudor subsequently ruled England and Wales until 1603.
  18. Richard III
    He was the last king of the House of York and the last of the Plantagenet dynasty. His defeat at Bosworth Field, the decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses, is sometimes regarded as the end of the Middle Ages in England. He is the subject of the play Richard III by William Shakespeare.
  19. Henry VII
    Was successful in restoring the power and stability of the English monarchy after the political upheavals of the civil wars known as the Wars of the Roses. He founded the Tudor dynasty and, after a reign of nearly 24 years, was peacefully succeeded by his son, Henry VIII.
  20. Court of Star Chamber
    The court made up of judges and privy councillors that grew out of the medieval king’s council as a supplement to the regular justice of the common-law courts. It achieved great popularity under Henry VIII for its ability to enforce the law when other courts were unable to do so because of corruption and influence, and to provide remedies when others were inadequate. When, however, it was used by Charles I to enforce unpopular political and ecclesiastical policies, it became a symbol of oppression to the parliamentary and Puritan opponents of Charles and Archbishop William Laud. It was, therefore, abolished by the Long Parliament in 1641.
  21. Golden Bull
    Constitution for the Holy Roman Empire promulgated in 1356 by the emperor Charles IV. It was intended to eliminate papal interference in German political affairs and to recognize the importance of the princes, especially the electors, of the empire.
  22. Reichstag
    Was an imperial diet of the Holy Roman Empire held in Worms, Germany at the Heylshof Garden. (A "diet" is a formal deliberative assembly.) It is most memorable for the Edict of Worms, which addressed Martin Luther and the effects of the Protestant Reformation.
  23. Maximilian I
    archduke of Austria, German king, and Holy Roman emperor (1493–1519), who made his family, the Habsburgs, dominant in 16th-century Europe. He added vast lands to the traditional Austrian holdings, securing the Netherlands by his own marriage, Hungary and Bohemia by treaty and military pressure, and Spain and the Spanish empire by the marriage of his son Philip. He also fought a series of wars against the French, mostly in Italy.
  24. The Printing Press
    In Renaissance Europe, the arrival of mechanical movable type printing introduced the era of mass communication which permanently altered the structure of society. The relatively unrestricted circulation of information and (revolutionary) ideas transcended borders, captured the masses in the Reformation and threatened the power of political and religious authorities; the sharp increase in literacy broke the monopoly of the literate elite on education and learning and bolstered the emerging middle class.
  25. Desiderius Erasmus
    Humanist who was the greatest scholar of the northern Renaissance, the first editor of the New Testament, and also an important figure in patristics and classical literature.
  26. Thomas More
    English humanist and statesman, chancellor of England (1529–32), who was beheaded for refusing to accept King Henry VIII as head of the Church of England. He is recognized as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church.
  27. Prince Henry the Navigator
    Better known as Henry the Navigator, was an important figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire and the Age of Discoveries in total. He was responsible for the early development of European exploration and maritime trade with other continents.
  28. Bartholomew Dias
    A nobleman of the Portuguese royal household, was a Portuguese explorer. He sailed around the southernmost tip of Africa in 1488, the first European known to have done so.
  29. Christopher Columbus
    Was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer, born in the Republic of Genoa, in what is today northwestern Italy. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that led to general European awareness of the American continents. Those voyages, and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola, initiated the Spanish colonization of the New World.
  30. Ferdinand Magellan
    Was a Portuguese explorer who became known for having organized the first circumnavigation of the Earth. He was born in a still disputed location in northern Portugal, and served King Charles I of Spain in search of a westward route to the "Spice Islands"
  31. Hernan Cortez
    Was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.
  32. Francisco Pizarro
    Spanish conqueror of the Inca empire and founder of the city of Lima.
  33. Peninsulares
    Any of the colonial residents of Latin America from the 16th through the early 19th centuries who had been born in Spain. They enjoyed the special favor of the Spanish crown and were appointed to most of the leading civil and ecclesiastical posts under the colonial regime. Which led to enmity fro the American born Creoles.
  34. Encomienda
    Consisted of a grant by the crown to a conquistador, soldier, official, or others of a specified number of Indians living in a particular area. The receiver of the grant, the encomendero, could exact tribute from the Indians in gold, in kind, or in labor and was required to protect them and instruct them in the Christian faith. The encomienda did not include a grant of land, but in practice the encomenderos gained control of the Indians’ lands and failed to fulfill their obligations to the Indian population.