astronomy chapter 3

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astronomy chapter 3
2013-08-26 00:41:41
astro heidili

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  1. new moon
    first phase when the Moon is barely visible

    rises at sunrise sets at sunset
  2. waxing crescent moon
    second phase after new moon
  3. first quarter moon
    a week after new moon half the moon is illuminated

    rises around noon and sets at sunset
  4. waxing gibbous moon
    4 days after first quarter moon
  5. full moon
    opposite the Sun on the celestial sphere it rises at sunset and sets at sunrise
  6. waning gibbous moon
    over two week ssee less of illuminated hemispher; illuminated side is to the east
  7. waning crescent moon
    after third quarter moon
  8. third quarter moon
    after waning gibbous moon

    rises at midnight sets at noon
  9. synchronous rotation
    it takes exactly as long to rotate on its axis as it does to make one orbit around Earth so we always see the same face of the Moon.
  10. sidereal month
    is the time it takes the Moon to complete one full orbit of the Earth 27.32 days
  11. synodic month (lunar month)
    time to takes the to complete one full cycle of phases 29.53 days
  12. eclipses
    When the  Sun, Earth, and the Moon all happen to lie along a straight line. When this occurs, the shadow of Earth can fall on the Moon or the shadow of the Moon can fall on Earth.
  13. lunar eclipse
    occurs when the Moon passes through Earth's shadow can occur at full moon
  14. solar eclipse
    occurs when Earth passes through the Moon's shadow, can only occur the Moon must be between Earth and the Sun. therefore it can only occur when at new moon
  15. line of nodes
    the planes of Earth's orbit and the Moon's orbit intersect along a line called the line of nodes.
  16. umbra
    the darkest part of the shadow no portion of the Sun's surface can be seen
  17. penumbra
    a portion of the Sun's surface is visible which is not as dark
  18. penumbral eclipse
    during a penumbral eclipse, Earth blocks only a part of the Sun's light sand so none of the lunar surface is completely shaded
  19. total lunar eclipse
    if the Moon travels completely into the umbra
  20. partial eclipse
    if only part of the moon passes through the umbra
  21. totality
    period when the moon is completely witihin Earth's umbra, can last for as long as 1 hour and 42 minutes
  22. solar corona
    the sun's thin hot outer atmosphere which is normally to o dim to be seen.
  23. partial solar eclipse
    during a solar eclipse the moon's penumbra covers a large portion of Earth's surface and anyone standing inside the penumbra sees a partial eclipse.
  24. apogee
    moon's farthest position from Earth
  25. annular eclipse
    a thin ring of the sun is seen around the edge of the moon

    since the length of the Moon's umbra is is small it often fails to reach Earth
  26. perigee
    eclipse path is widest if the Moon happens to be at perigee, the point in its orbit nearest Earth