Unit 1

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Unit 1
2013-08-26 07:44:11
AP Euro

Unit 1
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  1. Black Death
    the Bubanic Plague
  2. Decameron
    written by Giovanni Boccaccio which pinpointed the cause of the spread of the Black Death
  3. Causes of Hundreds Years War
    • -monarchial disagreements
    • -vassalage of England to France
    • -lasted do long due to French Civil War
    • -economic factors in the wool trade and control of towns
  4. Joan of Arc
    Leader of French troops and led France to many victories, including Battle of Orleans. Was captured by English, convicted of heresy and witchcraft, and burned at the stake.
  5. Effects of Hundreds Years War
    • -massive loss of population for France
    • -ruined rural economy and destroyed farmland
    • -England spent massive amounts of money but economy opened up.
    • -English parliment developed
  6. Pope Innocent III
    Sponsored 4th Crusade and built up papacy. He convoked the fourth Lateran Council.
  7. College of Cardinals
    The function of the college is to advise the Pope about church matters when he summons them and convenes on the death or resignation of a pope as a papal conclave to elect a successor.
  8. Boniface
    was a missionary who propagated Christianity in the Frankish Empire during the 8th century. He is the patron saint of Germany and the first archbishop of Mainz.
  9. conclave
     a meeting of Roman Catholic cardinals secluded continuously while choosing a pope
  10. Unam Sanctam
    Pope Boniface VIII issued the Papal bull Unam sanctam, and propositions on the unity of the Catholic Church, the necessity of belonging to it for eternal salvation, and the positionof the pope as supreme head of the church.
  11. Avingnon Papacy
    the period from 1309 to 1378, during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon, in France, rather than in Rome. This situation arose from the conflict between the Papacy and the French crown.
  12. Babylonian Captivity
    absence from Rome when Clement V declined to move to Rome, remaining in France, and in 1309 moved his court to the papal enclave at Avignon, where it remained for the next 67 years.
  13. Curia
    consists of a group of officials who assist in the governance of a particular Church.
  14. Urban VI
    born Bartolomeo Prignano and was the head of the Catholic Church from 8 April 1378 to his death in 1389.
  15. Great Schism
    the split between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church
  16. Clement Theory
    born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was the head of the Catholic Church from 19 November 1523 to his death in 1534.
  17. Councilar Theory
     held that supreme authority in the Church resided with an Ecumenical council, apart from, or even against, the pope.
  18. Council of Pisa
    an unrecognized ecumenical council of the Catholic Church held in 1409 that attempted to end the Western Schism by deposing Benedict XIII and Gregory XII.
  19. Council of Constance
    ended the Three-Popes Controversy, by deposing or accepting the resignation of the remaining Papal claimants and electing Pope Martin V.
  20. Sacrosancta
    declared that the Concil of Constances' authority was greater than the pope's. 
  21. Martin V
    born Otto Colonna, was the head of the Catholic Church from 14 November 1417 to his death in 1431. His election effectively ended the Western Schism
  22. Renaissance
    literally means rebirth. A period of enhance cultural, economic and political changes throughout Europe.
  23. Growth of City-States
    many cities began to govern themselves as countries, especially in Italy, such as Florence, Venice, and Milan.
  24. Florentine class structure
    Nobles, Merchants, Middle Class, then Workers
  25. Ciompi Revolt
    a briefly successful revolt of the  lower classes, the ciompi, and contributed to the support given to the Medici a generation afterwards
  26. The Medicis
    a political dynasty, banking family and later royal house that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence
  27. studia humanitatis
    the philosophy of studying all subjects and not just one
  28. Petrarch
    seen as the father of humanism, and began movement through his sonnets
  29. Dante Alighieri
    wrote the Divine Comedies
  30. Baldassacre Castiglione
    wrote the book of the courier, and told how to be a "gentleman" before the kings or leaders.
  31. Christane de Pisan
    was a court courier and well regarded poet
  32. Platonism
    the philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from him.
  33. Florentine Academy
    reintroduced Plato's thoughts to Western Europe. It was sponsored by Cosimo de' Medici, led by Marsilio Ficino and supported by Medici until death of Lorenzo Medici.
  34. Lorenzo Valla
    was an Italian humanist, rhetorician, and educator.
  35. Civic Humanism
    the philosophy that involves active and patriotic citizenship combined with ethics and an emphasis on education.