written by Giovanni Boccaccio which pinpointed the cause of the spread of the Black Death
Causes of Hundreds Years War
-vassalage of England to France
-lasted do long due to French Civil War
-economic factors in the wool trade and control of towns
Joan of Arc
Leader of French troops and led France to many victories, including Battle of Orleans. Was captured by English, convicted of heresy and witchcraft, and burned at the stake.
Effects of Hundreds Years War
-massive loss of population for France
-ruined rural economy and destroyed farmland
-England spent massive amounts of money but economy opened up.
-English parliment developed
Pope Innocent III
Sponsored 4th Crusade and built up papacy. He convoked the fourth Lateran Council.
College of Cardinals
The function of the college is to advise the Pope about church matters when he summons them and convenes on the death or resignation of a pope as a papal conclave to elect a successor.
was a missionary who propagated Christianity in the Frankish Empire during the 8th century. He is the patron saint of Germany and the first archbishop of Mainz.
a meeting of Roman Catholic cardinals secluded continuously while choosing a pope
Pope Boniface VIII issued the Papal bull Unam sanctam, and propositions on the unity of the Catholic Church, the necessity of belonging to it for eternal salvation, and the positionof the pope as supreme head of the church.
the period from 1309 to 1378, during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon, in France, rather than in Rome. This situation arose from the conflict between the Papacy and the French crown.
absence from Rome when Clement V declined to move to Rome, remaining in France, and in 1309 moved his court to the papal enclave at Avignon, where it remained for the next 67 years.
consists of a group of officials who assist in the governance of a particular Church.
born Bartolomeo Prignano and was the head of the Catholic Church from 8 April 1378 to his death in 1389.
the split between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church
born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was the head of the Catholic Church from 19 November 1523 to his death in 1534.
held that supreme authority in the Church resided with an Ecumenical council, apart from, or even against, the pope.
Council of Pisa
an unrecognized ecumenical council of the Catholic Church held in 1409 that attempted to end the Western Schism by deposing Benedict XIII and Gregory XII.
Council of Constance
ended the Three-Popes Controversy, by deposing or accepting the resignation of the remaining Papal claimants and electing Pope Martin V.
declared that the Concil of Constances' authority was greater than the pope's.
born Otto Colonna, was the head of the Catholic Church from 14 November 1417 to his death in 1431. His election effectively ended the Western Schism
literally means rebirth. A period of enhance cultural, economic and political changes throughout Europe.
Growth of City-States
many cities began to govern themselves as countries, especially in Italy, such as Florence, Venice, and Milan.
Florentine class structure
Nobles, Merchants, Middle Class, then Workers
a briefly successful revolt of the lower classes, the ciompi, and contributed to the support given to the Medici a generation afterwards
a political dynasty, banking family and later royal house that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence
the philosophy of studying all subjects and not just one
seen as the father of humanism, and began movement through his sonnets
wrote the Divine Comedies
wrote the book of the courier, and told how to be a "gentleman" before the kings or leaders.
Christane de Pisan
was a court courier and well regarded poet
the philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from him.
reintroduced Plato's thoughts to Western Europe. It was sponsored by Cosimo de' Medici, led by Marsilio Ficino and supported by Medici until death of Lorenzo Medici.
was an Italian humanist, rhetorician, and educator.
the philosophy that involves active and patriotic citizenship combined with ethics and an emphasis on education.