Weather: Chapter 3, Section 1: Air Masses and Fronts; Chapter 3, Sections 2 & 3: Storms/Weather Pred
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Huge body of air that has similar temperature, humidity, and air pressure throughout it
WHAT ARE THE 4 MAJOR TYPES POF AIR MASSES THAT INFLUENCE WEATHER IN NORTH AMERICA?
- 1. Tropical
- 2. Polar
- 3. Maritime
- 4. Continental
TROPICAL AIR MASS
Warm air mass that form in the tropics and have low air pressure
POLAR AIR MASS
Cold air mass that form north of 50 degrees north latitude and 50 degrees south latitude
MARITIME AIR MASS
Air masses that form over oceans
CONTINENTAL AIR MASS
Air masses that form over land
Warm, humid air masses that form over oceans near the tropics
Cool air masses that form over the icy cold North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans
Hot, dry air masses that form only in summer over dry areas of the southwest and Northern Mexico
Air masses that form over central and Northern Canada or Alaska that bring cold air
HOW ARE AIR MASSES MOVED IN THE USA?
- 1. Prevailing Westerlies
- 2. Jet Streams
The area where air masses meet and do not meet
WHAT ARE 4 TYPES OF FRONTS THAT COLLIDING AIR MASSES CAN FORM?
- 1. Cold Front
- 2. Warm Front
- 3. Stationary Front
- 4. Occluded Front
Where rapid moving cold air masses runs into slow moving warm air masses causes abrupt weather changes
A moving warm air mass that collides with a slow moving cold air mass
When two air masses meet in a "stand-off"
When a warm air mass is caught between two colder air masses
A swirling center of low air pressure from a Greek word meaning "wheel"
CYCLONES AND DECREASING AIR PRESSURE ARE ASSOCIATED WITH WHAT 3 THINGS?
- 1. Clouds
- 2. Wind
- 3. Precipitation
High pressure centers of dry air
WHAT DOES THE DESCENDING AIR IN AN ANTICYCLONE GENERALLY CAUSE?
Dry, clear weather
A violent disturbance in the atmosphere involving sudden changes in the air pressure
Heavy rainstorm accompanied by thunder and lightning
WHERE DO THUNDERSTORMS FORM?
Inside cumulonimbus clouds, or thunderheads
A sudden spark, or energy discharge, jumping from cloud to cloud to the ground
WHAT ARE SOME SAFE THINGS TO DO DURING A THUNDERSTORM?
- 1. Avoid toughing metal objects
- 2. Stay away from open spaces
- 3. Do not touch electrical appliances or plumbing fixtures
A rapid, whirling, funnel-shaped cloud that reaches down from a storm to touch Earth's surface
HOW DO TORNADOES FORM?
Develop in low, heavy cumulonimbus clouds the same clouds that bring thunderstorms
Weather patterns often occurring in a certain USA region
WHERE IS THE SAFEST PLACE TO BE DURING A TORNADO?
The basement of a well-built structure
A tropical storm that has wings up to 119 km per hour or higher
WHERE DO HURRICANES BEGIN?
Over warm water as a low pressure area, or tropical disturbance
A dome of water that sweeps across the coast where the hurricane lands causing great damage
Move away temporarily
WHAT ARE SOME SAFTY TIPS FOR HURRICANES?
1. If you are given a warning to evacuate leave area immediately
2. Move away from interior of buildings and windows
As cold dry air masses move across the warmer water, it becomes more humid as water vapor evaporates from the lake surface. When air reaches land and cools, lake-effect snow falls
WHAT SHOULD YOU DO IF YOU ARE CUAGHT IN A SNOW STORM?
Try to find shelter from the wind
A scientist that studies the causes of the weather and tries to predict it
WHAT DO METEOROLOGISTS DO TO ANALYZE WEATHER AND PREDICT WEATHER?
Use maps, charts, computers to analyze data and to prepare weather forecasts
WHY HAVE WEATHER FORECASTS IMPROVED OVER TIME?
Technology has improved accuracy in wether forecasts
WHAT IS A WEATHER MAP?
A snapshot of conditions at a particular time over a large area
Lines joining places on the map that have the same air pressure
Lines joining places that have the same temperature
NEWSPAPER WEATHER MAP
Maps in newspapers that are simplified versions of weather produced by the National Weather Service
WHAT DO STANDARD SYMBOLS ON WEATHER MAPS SHOW?
- 1. Fronts
- 2. Areas of high and low pressure
- 3. Types of precipitation
- 4. Temperature
Scientists' suggest that even a small change in the weather today, like the flapping of a butterfly's wings, can mean a larger change in the atmosphere or in the weather in the next week
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