Cell structure continued

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Cell structure continued
2013-08-26 17:08:11

Cell structure Contued
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  1. increases surface area for absorbtive cells
  2. How do Cilia Move?
    sequential power strokes followed by recovery strokes
  3. Where are Cilia found?
    respiratory and reproductive tracts
  4. What do Cilia do?
    • Sensory cells
    • some are involved in vision, smell, hearing, and balance
  5. surrounds the nucleus with 2 unit membranes
    Nuclear envelope
  6. has membrane with pores which allow movement of selected products such as mRNA out of the nucleus
    nuclear envelope
  7. in the nucleoplasm, fine thread like matter that contains DNA, when not condensed
  8. largest organelle
  9. small dark area in the nucleus
  10. Makes ribosomal RNA
  11. function in protein synthesis and production of cell membranes
    site of production of phospholipids and proteins of the plasma membrane
    Rough ER
  12. Produce Hormones
    release calcium for contraction
    Detoxifies alcohol
    function in lipid synthesis
    calcium storage
    smooth ER
  13. list the two membranes in the mitochondrion
    • cristae
    • Matrix
  14. located in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion, has folds which project like shelves across the organelle
  15. found in the mitochondrion-, space between cristae and  contains ribosomes and small, circular DNA,
  16. Energy is extracted from organic compounds and transferred to ATP here
  17. interpret the genetic code and synthesize polypeptides that are made into protieins
  18. Where are Ribosomes located?
    small dark granules of protein and RNA free in cytosol

    Rough ER
  19. synthesizes carbohydrates, processes proteins from RER and packages them in to Golgi vesicles
    Golgi Complex
  20. 3 types of secretory vesicles released by the Golgi
    • Lysosomes
    • Transport vessicles
    • Secretory vesicles
  21. store a cell product
    Secretory vessicles
  22. 1. Intracellular Digestion
    2. Autophagy
    3. Glucose mobilization
  23. steps to a Secretion of a protein
    • 1. Protein formed by ribosomes on the Rough ER
    • 2. Protein packaged into transport Vessicle, which bud from ER
    • 3. Transport vessicles fuse in to clusters that unload protein in to Golgi complex
    • 4.Golgi complex modifies protein structure
    • 5. Golgi vessicles containing finished protein formed
    • 6.secretory vessicles release protein by exocytosis
  24. carry membrane proteins that fuse with plasma membrane
    Transport Vessicles
  25. how are lysosomes made?
    bud off of the cisternae of the ER
  26. hydrolyze proteins, nucleic acids, complex carbohydrates, phosopholipids, and other substrates
    intracellular digestion
  27. the digestion of worn our organelles and mitochondrion
  28. programmed cell death
  29. lysosomes in liver cells break down glycogen
    gluclose mobilization
  30. oxidize organic molecules using oxygen-

    break down fatty acids into acetyl groups-

    neutralize free radicals-

    detoxify alcohol, drugs and toxins
  31. inner membrane of the mithochondrion
  32. outer membrane of the mitochondrion
  33. organelles specialized for synthesizing ATP
  34. short cyclindrical assemble of microtubules, arranged in nine groups of three microtubules each
  35. form mitotic spindle during cell division
  36. -gives the cytoplasm strength and flexibility-
    -network of protein filaments and cylinders-
    -connects to transmembrane proteins in plasma membrane-
  37. 3 components that make up the cytoskeleton
    • Microfilaments
    • intermediate fibers
    • microtubules
  38. made of keratin in epidermal cells
    intermediate fibers
  39. made of protein actin, form network on cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane
  40. supports phospholipids of plasma membrane, supports microvilli and produces cell movement, and myosin causes muscle contraction
  41. stabilize the positions of organelles
    intermediate fibers
  42. form tracks to guide organelles and molecules to specific destinations in a cell
  43. allows passage of some things between cytoplasm and ECF but not others
    plasma membrane--this is selective permeability
  44. transport that requires no ATP-
    Passive Transport
  45. transport that requires ATP
    Active Transport
  46. Types of transport in passive transport
    • filtration
    • facilitated diffusion
    • simple diffusion
    • osmosis
  47. types of transport in active transport
    • facilitated diffusion and active transport-
    • bulk transport-
  48. movement of particles across selectively permeable membrane, down concentration gradient
    passive transport
  49. transports particles up or against a concentration gradient
    active transport
  50. movement of particles through a selectively permeable membrane by hydrostatic pressure
  51. the force exerted on the membrane by water
    hydrostatic pressure
  52. movement of particles as a result of their constant random motion
    simple diffusion
  53. movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
    net diffusion
  54. movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane that separates soluted of varying concentrations
  55. transport of particles through a selectively permeable membrane, down their concentration gradient,  by a carrier that does not directly consume ATP
    facillitated diffusion
  56. name the 5 factors of diffusion rate
    • -temperature
    • -molecular weight
    • -steepness of concentration gradient
    • -membrane surface area
    • -membrane permeabillity
  57. ability of a solution to affect fluid volume and pressure within a cell
  58. has low concetration of nonpermeating solutes ( high water concentration)
    hypotonic solution
  59. cells in this solution would absorb water, swell and may burst
  60. has high concentration of nonpermeating solutes ( low water concentration)
    hypertonic solution
  61. cells in this solution would lose water+shrivel
    hypertonic solution
  62. soulution=cells (even)
    isotonic solution
  63. a solution that has concentration of  0.9%
    isotonic saline
  64. two types of carrier mediated transport are
    facilitated diffusion and active transport
  65. what are the limits of carrier mediated transport
    and explain them
    • specificity- carrier can only carry certain things
    • saturation- as the solute concentration rises its rate of transport increases, when every carrier is occupied adding more solute wont make process go by faster
    • Transport maximum-
    • the rate when the carrier are saturated and no more are available to handle the increased demand
  66. difference in chemical concentration from one point to another, as on two sides of a plama membrane
    concentration gradient
  67. Funtion-
    regulation of cell volume
    heat production
    maintenance of a membrane potential
    secondary active transport
    sodium potassium pump
  68. vessicular transport of particles in to a cell
  69. process of discharging material from a cell
  70. process of engulfing particles such as bacteria, dust, and cellular debri
  71. process of taking in droplets of ECF containgin molecules of some use to the cell
  72. transport of material across a cell
  73. it enables a cell to take in specific molecules from the ECF with minimum of unnecassary matter
    receptor-mediated endocytosis
  74. processes by contrast, move large droplets of fluid, or numerous molecules at once through the membrane
    vesicular transport
  75. 7 steps of phagocytosis
    • 1. a phagocytic cell encounters a particle of foreign matter
    • 2. the cell surrounds the paritcle with its pseudopods
    • 3. the particle is phagocytized and contained in a phagosome
    • 4. the phgosome fuses with a lysosome and becomes a phgolysosome
    • 5. enzymes from the lysosomes digest the foeighn matter
    • 6. the phagolysosome fuses with the plasma membrane
    • 7. the indigestible residue is voided by exocytosis
  76. 3 steps for receptor mediated endocytosis
    • 1. extra cellular molecules bind to receptors on plasma membrane:receptors cluster together
    • 2. plasma membrane sinks inward forms clathrin-coated pit
    • 3. pit separates from plasma membrane, forms clathrin coated vesicle containing concentrated molecules from ECF