Biology: Renal, Excretory

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sdelacruz
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23143
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Biology: Renal, Excretory
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2010-06-12 16:19:32
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Biology Renal Excretory
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Biology: Renal, Excretory
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  1. The kidney is divided into 3 regions:
    1.
    2.
    3.
    • 1. cortex
    • 2. medulla
    • 3. pelvis
  2. Blood enters the kidney through the ____________.
    Renal artery
  3. The renal artery divides into the _____________ that run through the medulla and into the cortex.
    Afferent arteries
  4. Each afferent arteriole branches into a convoluted network of capillaries called the _____________.
    Glomerulus
  5. The capillaries in the glomerulus converge into the ______________.
    Efferent arteriole.
  6. The efferent arteriole divides into a fine capillary network known as the ____________.
    Vasa recta
  7. The vasa recta enmeshes the nephron tubule and then converges into the _______________.
    Renal vein.
  8. During filtration, blood pressure forces 20% of the blood plasma entering the glomerulus into the _______________.
    Bowman's capsule
  9. The fluid and small solutes entering the nephron are called the ___________.
    Filtrate
  10. The filtrate is __________ with blood plasma.
    isotonic
  11. What type of molecules are able to pass/dissolve through the glomerulus?
    • small molecules
    • i.e. glucose
  12. What type of molecules are NOT able to pass through the glomerulus?
    • Large molecules: Proteins and Blood cells
    • i.e. albumin

    *These cells remain in the circulatory system.
  13. The nephron secretes substances such as the following, from the interstitial fluid into the filtrate by both passive and active transport.
    1.
    2.
    3.
    • 1. acids
    • 2. bases
    • 3. ions
  14. Secretion maintains:
    1.
    2.
    3.
    • 1. blood pH
    • 2. Potassium concentration in the blood
    • 3. nitrogenous waste concentration in the filtrate
  15. Reabsorption:
    What substances are reabsorbed from the filtrate and returned to the blood?
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
    • 1. glucose
    • 2. salts
    • 3. amino acids
    • 4. water
  16. The reabsorption of essential substances from the filtrate results to the formation of a concentrated urine, which is ____________ to blood.
    Hypertonic
  17. The nephron is selectively permeable.
    a. true
    b. false
    True!
  18. The following structures in the nephron are selectively permeable to water:
    1.
    2.
    • 1. proximal tubule
    • 2. descending limb of the loop of Henle
  19. The ___________ is permeable only to salt.
    lower ascending limb
  20. In the presence of ADH, the walls of the collecting duct are permeable to 1. ____________, 2. ___________, but only slightly permeable to salt.
    • 1. water
    • 2. urea
  21. Tissue osmolarity __________ from cortex to inner medulla.
    a. decreases
    b. increases
    increases
  22. The salts that contribute to the maintenance of the gradient are:
    1.
    2.
    • 1. Urea
    • 2. salt (Na+, Cl-)
  23. Urea diffuses out of the _____________.
    Collecting duct
  24. After the urea diffuses out of the collecting duct, it eventually re-enters the nephron by diffusing into the ____________.
    Ascending limb
  25. The reabsorption of organic molecules occurs via _____________.
    Active Transport
  26. The two hormones that regulate water reabsorption are :
    1.
    2.
    • 1. aldosterone
    • 2. ADH
  27. Aldosterone is produced by the ___________.
    Adrenal cortex
  28. The hormone, _____________, stimulates the reabsorption of Na+ from the collecting duct, and the secretion of K+ .
    aldosterone
  29. Aldosterone secretion is regulated by the ___________________.
    renin angiotensin system
  30. ADH is also known as ___________.
    Vassopressin
  31. _____________ causes increased water reabsorption.
    ADH
  32. ADH acts directly on the _______________, increasing its permeability to water.
    collecting duct
  33. A high solute concentrate in the blood causes an increase or a decrease in ADH secretion?
    increase
  34. A low solute concentration in the blood increases or decreases ADH secretion?
    decreases
  35. The following inhibit ADH secretion:
    1.
    2.
    • 1. alcohol
    • 2. caffeine
  36. What two substances can inhibit ADH secretion, causing excess excretion of dilute urine and dehydration?
    • alcohol
    • caffeine
  37. The fluid exits the kidney via the _________, a duct leading to the bladder.
    Ureter
  38. Urine is excreted from the body through the __________.
    Urethra
  39. In a ____________ individual, the nephron reabsorbs all of the glucose entering it, producing glucose-free urine.
    a. healthy
    b. diabetic
    healthy
  40. The __________ regulates blood glucose levels and produces urea.
    Liver
  41. Glucose and other monosaccharides absorbed during digestion are delivered to the liver via the _______________.
    Hepatic portal vein
  42. Glucose-rich blood is processed by the ____________, which converts excess glucose glycogen for storage.
    Liver
  43. If the blood has a low glucose concentration, what does the liver do to re-establish homeostasis?
    The liver converts glycogen into glucose and releases it into the blood, restoring blood glucose levels to normal.

    *In addition, the liver synthesizes glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors via the process of gluconegenesis.
  44. The ______________ is responsible for processing nitrogenous wastes.
    Liver
  45. Excess amino acids are absorbed in the small intestine and transported to the liver via the _____________.
    Hepatic portal vein
  46. Functions of the liver
    • regulate glucose levels
    • produce urea
    • processing of nitrogenous wastes
    • detoxification of toxins
    • storage of iron and vitamin B12
    • destruction of old erythrocytes
    • synthesis of bile
    • synthesis of various blood proteins
    • defense against various antigens
    • beta-oxidation of fatty acids to ketones
    • interconversion of carbohydrates, fats, aa

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