A and P Chemistry

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A and P Chemistry
2013-08-27 14:16:07

A and P Chemistry
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  1. How is the study of living material dependent on the study of chemistry?
    • our human bodies are composed of chemicals.
    • Chemical direct all physiologic processes and events within the body
  2. has mass and takes up space
  3. simplest form of matter
  4. substance broken down into its simplest form, yet retains its unique chemical properites
  5. elements are called
  6. chemical paritcles composed of two or more atoms united by a chemical bond
  7. molecules composed of two or more elements
  8. explain atomic structure
    • An atom has nucleus:
    • Protons and Neutrons are found in the Nucleus
    • Electrons are found around the nucleus in electron shells or orbitals
  9. how does the atomic structure relate to how atoms interact?
    The valence electrons determine the chemnical bonding properties of an atom
  10. elements that differ in the number of neutrons
  11. explain the effect of isotopes on mass numbers
    extra neutron results in increased atomic mass
  12. give an example of an isotope use in medicine
  13. charged particles with an unequal number of protons and electrons
  14. substances that ionize in water and form solution capable of conducting electricity
  15. electrons from one atom are attracted so stongly by another atom that they leave the fist atom and go to the second
    ionic bond
  16. the attraction of oppositely charged ions
    ionic bond
  17. weak attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom in one molecule and a slightly negative oxygen or nitrogen atom in another molecule
    hydrogen bond
  18. sharing of electron in the outer shell
    covalent bond
  19. sharing of electrons equally
    non polar covalent bond
  20. sharing of electrons unequally
    polar covalent bond
  21. when one pair of electrons are shared
    single covalent bond
  22. two pairs of electrons are shared
    double covalent bond
  23. consists of energy releasing decompositions reaction
    catabolic reaction
  24. consists of energy storing synthesis reactions
    anabolic reaction
  25. when a large molecule breaks down into two or more smaller ones
    decomposistion reaction
  26. when two or more small molecules combine to form a larger one
    synthesis reaction
  27. when two molecules exchange atoms or groups of atoms
    exchange reactions
  28. Two divisions of metabolism
    • catabolism
    • anabolism
  29. all the chemical reactions of the body
  30. allows biochemical reactions to occur rapidly at normal body temperatures
  31. functions as a biological catalysts
  32. action of a enzyme 3 steps (Sucrase example)
    • 1.  A substrate molecule approaches a pocket on the enzyme surface called the active site.
    • 2.  the substrate binds to the ezyme, forming an enzyme-subtrate complex
    • 3. Sucrase breaks the covalent bond between the two sugars of sucrose, leaving 2 monosaccharides glucose and fructose to be realeased by the enzyme as it reaction products
  33. A particular type of coupled reaction that often occurs in the body
    oxidation reduction reaction
  34. Molecule gives up electron and releases energy
    –accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent
    oxidation reaction
  35. –molecule
    gains electrons and energy

    molecule is the reducing agent
    Reduction Reaction
  36. –Electrons
    are often transferred as hydrogen atoms
    Oxidation Reduction reaction
  37. one sub-unit of an antibody molecule, composed of four polypeptides
  38. a molecule that consists of a long chain of identical or similar subunits such as protein, DNA or starch
  39. condensation
    dehydration synthesis reaction
  40. how cells achieve polymerization
    dehydration synthesis reaction
  41. a hydrogen atom is removed from one monomer and a hydroxyl group is removed from another. these combine to form water as a by-product. the monmers become joined by a covalent bond to form a dimer
    dehydration synthesis reaction
  42. a covalent bond between two monomers is broken. water donates a hydrogen atom to one monomer and a hydroxyl group to the other
    hydrolysis reaction
  43. 4 major groups of organic substances
    • carbohydrates
    • lipids
    • proteins
    • nucleic acids
  44. -provide a source of energy to fuel cellular
    -activitiesstored as reserve energy supplies
  45. •Essential
    to the structure and function of cell membrane and supplies many vital
    functions in cells
  46. •Includes
    acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, eicosinoids, and steroids
  47. •Composed
    of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and maybe nitrogen and phosphorus
  48. steroids that acid in fat digestion and nutrient absorption
    bile acids
  49. component of cell membranes; precursor of other steroids
  50. chemical messengers between cells
  51. involved in a variety of function including blood clotting, wound healing, vision, and calcium absorption
    fat soluble vitamins (a,D,E and K)
  52. precursor of triglycerides; source of energy
    fatty acids
  53. major component of cell membranes; aid in fat digestion
  54. chemical messengers between cells
    steroid hormones
  55. energy storage; thermal insulation; filling space; binding organ together; cushioning organs
  56. •Structural


    hormones are proteins


    form channels in the plasma membrane to allow substances in or out of the cell


    control most chemical reactions in the

    and protection





    bind cells to other cells
  57. •proteins
    that function as biological catalysts
  58. •Permit
    reactions to occur rapidly at normal body temperature
  59. •Polymers
    of nucleotides
    nucleic acid
  60. DNA, RNA
    nucleic Acid
  61. -Constitues our genes
    -gives instructions of synthesizing all of the bodys protiens
    -transfers hereditary information from cell to cell when cells divide
    DNA( nucleic acid)
  62. carry out instruction and sythesize the proteins-
    RNA (nucleic acid)
  63. CH2O
  64. 3 important monosaccharides
    • •Glucose,
    • galactose,
    • and
    • fructose
  65. blood sugar
  66. sugar
    composed of two monosaccharides
  67. •Three
    important disaccharides

    •Sucrose—table sugar

    + fructose

    •Lactose—sugar in milk

    + galactose

    •Maltose—grain products

    + glucose
    • •Sucrose
    • Lactose
    • Maltose
  68. •long
    chains of monosaccharides
    least 50)
  69. short
    chains of 3 or more monosaccharides
    (at least 10)
  70. storage forms of Carbs
    • Glycogen
    • starch
  71. What are the Characteristics of lipids?
    • •Insoluble
    • (non-polar) in water

    • •Soluble
    • in organic solvents like ether, benzene, and chloroform

    • •Composed
    • of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and maybe nitrogen and phosphorus
  72. fat that has as much hydrogen as it can carry no more can be added without exceeding four covalent bonds per carbon atom
    saturated fat
  73. fat that could potentialy share one pair of electron with another hydrogen atom instead of the adjacent carbon so hydrogen could be added to this molecule
    unstaturated fat
  74. 3 components of a trglyceride molecule
  75. palmitic acid
    • stearic acid
    • linoleic acid
  76. •contains
    only two fatty acid chains, phosphate group, and glycerol
  77. •Lower
    ratio of lipid to protein

    help to prevent cardiovascular disease
    good cholesterol
  78. How are amino acids different?
    • the third functional group called radical. 
    • the radicals are different in every amino acid
  79. How are amino acids different?
    all amino acids have a cenral carbon atom with an amino and carboxyl group bounded to it.
  80. unique,
    three-dimensional  shape of protein
    crucial to function
  81. What happends to a protein when it denatures?
    confromational change and it destroys function
  82. Three types of RNA
    • •Messenger
    • RNA, ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA
  83. What is the difference between DNA and RNA?
    • DNA gives instruction for synthesizing proteins
    • and RNA carries the instructions out
  84. list the component of a nuleotide in DNA
    • •deoxyribose
    • sugar

    • •adenine
    • and guanine

    • •cytosine
    • and thymine

    • •phosphate
    • group
  85. components of RNA
    ribose and uracil