APES Chapter 1

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APES Chapter 1
2013-08-26 19:08:18

vocab chapters 1
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  1. environment
    sum of all conditions surrounding us that influence life
  2. environmental science
    the field that looks at interactions among human systems and those found in nature
  3. system
    any set of interacting components that influence one another by exchanging energy or materials
  4. ecosystem
    particular location on Earth whose interacting components including biotic and abiotic components
  5. biotic
  6. abiotic
  7. environmentalist
    a person who participates in environmentalism (a social movement that seeks to protect the environment through lobbying, activism, and education
  8. environmental studies
    the field of study that includes environmental policy, economics, literature, and ethics, among others
  9. ecosystem services
    the process by which natural environments provide life-supporting resources
  10. environmental indicators
    an indicator that describes the current state of an environmental system
  11. sustainability
    living on Earth in a way that allows us to use its resources without depriving future generations of those resources
  12. biodiversity
    the diversity of life forms in an environment

    includes genetic, species, and ecosystem diversity
  13. species
    a group of organisms that is distinct from other groups in its morphology (body form and structure), behavior, or biochemical properties
  14. speciation
    evolution of new species
  15. background extinction rate
    the average rate at which species go extinct over the long term
  16. greenhouse gases
    a gas in the Earth's atmosphere that traps heat near the surface
  17. anthropogenic
    derived from human activities
  18. development
    improvement in human well-being through economic advancement
  19. sustainable development
    development that balances current human well-being and economic advancement with resource management for the benefit of future generations
  20. biophilia
    love of life
  21. ecological footprint
    a measure of how much that person consumes, expressed in area of land
  22. scientific method
    an objective way to explore the natural world, draw inferences from it, and predict the outcome of certain events, processes, or changes
  23. hypothesis
    a testable conjecture about how something works
  24. null hypothesis
    statement of idea that can be falsified, or proved wrong
  25. replication
    the data collection procedure of taking repeated measurements
  26. sample size
    the number of times a measurement is replicated
  27. accuracy
    how close a measured value is to the actual or true value
  28. precision
    how close to one another the repeated measurements of the same sample are
  29. uncertainty
    an estimate of how much a measured or calculated value differs from a true value
  30. inductive reasoning
    the process of making general statements from specific facts or examples
  31. deductive reasoning
    the process of applying a general statement to specific facts or situations
  32. critical thinking
    the process of questioning the source of information, considering the methods used to obtain the information, and drawing conclusions; essential to all scientific endeavor
  33. theory
    a hypothesis that has been repeatedly tested and confirmed by multiple groups of researchers and has reached wide acceptance
  34. natural law
    a theory to which there are no known exceptions and which has withstood rigorous testing
  35. control group
    a group that experiences exactly the same conditions as the experimental group except for the single variable under study
  36. natural experiment
    a natural event that acts as an experimental treatment in an ecosystem
  37. environmental justice
    social movement and field of study that works toward equal enforcement of environmental laws and the elimination of disparities, whether intended or unintended, in how pollutants and other environmental harms are distributed among the various ethnic and socioeconomic groups within a society