APES Chapter 2

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riana143
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231460
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APES Chapter 2
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2013-08-26 20:58:44
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vocab ch.2
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  1. matter
    anything that occupies space and has mass
  2. mass
    the measure of the amount of matter an object contains
  3. atom
    smallest particle that can contain the chemical properties of an element
  4. element
    a substance composed of atoms that cannot be broken down into smaller, simpler, components
  5. periodic table
    chart of all of the elements currently known
  6. molecules
    particles containing more than one atom
  7. compounds
    molecules that contain more than one element
  8. atomic number
    # of protons in the nucleaus of a particular element
  9. mass number
    total number of protons and neutrons in an element
  10. isotopes
    atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
  11. radioactive decay
    the spontaneous release of material from the nucleaus
  12. half-life
    the time it takes for one half of the original radioactive parent atoms to decay
  13. covalent bonds
    the bond formed when elements share electrons
  14. ionic bond
    a chemical bond between two oppositely charged ions
  15. hydrogen bond
    weak chemical bond that forms when hydrogen atoms that are covalently bonded to one atom are attracted to another atom on another molecule
  16. polar molecule
    a molecule in which one side is more positive and the other side is more negative
  17. surface tension
    a property of water that results from the cohesion of water molecules at the surface of a body of water and creates a sort of skin on the water's surface
  18. capillary action
    a property of water that occurs when adhesion of water molecules to a surface is stronger than cohesion between the molecules
  19. acid
    substance that contributes hydrogen ions to a solution
  20. base
    substance that contributes hydroxide ions to a solution
  21. pH
    the # indicating the strength of acids and bases on a scale of 0 to 14 where 7 is neautral, a value below 7 is acidic, and a value above 7 is basic (alkaline)
  22. law of conservation of matter
    states that matter cannot be created nor destroyed it can only change form
  23. inorganic compounds
    compounds that are either (a) do not contain the element carbon or (b) do contain carbon, but only carbon bound to elements other than hydrogen (NH3 ammonia, NaCl, H2O, CO2)
  24. organic compounds
    compounds that have carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds (ex. glucose C6H12O6, CH4)
  25. proteins
    made up of long chains of nitrogen containing organic molecules called amino acids (enzymes)
  26. nucleic acids
    organic compounds found in all living cells
  27. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
    genetic material organisms pass on to their offsprings that contains the code for reproducing the components of the next generation
  28. RNA (ribonucleic acid)
    translates the code stored in the DNA and allows for the synthesis of proteins
  29. lipids
    smaller biological molecules that do not mix with water
  30. cell
    highly organized living entity that consists of the four types of macromolecules and other substances in a watery solution surrounded by a membrane
  31. energy
    the ability to do work, or transfer heat
  32. electromagnetic radiation
    a form of energy that includes, but is not limited to, visible light, ultraviolet light, and infrared energy which we percieve as heat (SUN)
  33. photons
    massless packets of energy that travel at the speed of light and can move even through the vacuum of space
  34. joule
    the amount of energy used when a 1 watt electrical device is turned on for 1 second
  35. power
    rate at which work is done
  36. power equation
    power = energy / time
  37. energy equation
    energy= power x time
  38. potential energy
    energy that is stored but has not yet been released
  39. kinetic energy
    the energy of motion
  40. chemical equation
    potential energy stored in chemical bonds
  41. temperature
    the average kinetic energy of a substance
  42. Four types of macromolecules
    Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acids, Lipids
  43. first law of thermodynamics
    a law of nature stating that energy can neither be created nor destroyed
  44. second law of thermodynamics
    the law stating that when energy is transformed, the quantity of energy remains the same, but its ability to do work diminishes
  45. energy efficiency
    the ration of the amount of work done to the total amount of energy introduced to the system
  46. energy quality
    the ease with which an energy source can be used for work
  47. entropy
    randomness in a system
  48. open system
    a system in which exchanges of matter or energy occur across system boundaries
  49. closed system
    a system in which matter and energy exchanges do not occur across boundaries
  50. inputs
    additions to a given system
  51. outputs
    losses from the system
  52. systems analysis
    an analysis to determine inputs, outputs, and changes in a system under various conditions
  53. steady state
    a state in which inputs equal outputs, so that the system is not changing over time
  54. feedback
    an adjustment in input or output rates caused by changes to a system
  55. negative feedback loops
    a feedback loop in which a system responds to a change by returning to its original state, or by decreasing the rate at which the change is occuring
  56. positive feedback loop
    a feedback loop in which change in a system is amplified
  57. adaptive management plan
    a plan that provides flexibility so that managers can modify it as changes occur

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