Chapter 1

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Chapter 1
2013-08-26 22:12:07
Major Themes Anatomy Physiology

A & P 1: Chapter 1: Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology
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  1. D: Anatomy
    Study of structure
  2. D: Physiology
    Study of Function
  3. State: whether it is important to be aware of anatomical and phsiological variations in humans
    By being aware of variations we can see what is normal vs abnormal.
  4. Atom
    Smallest particle of with unique chemical identities
  5. molecule
    particle composed of at least two atoms
  6. macromolecule
    • Large molecules composed of many atoms
    • -fat, protein
  7. organelles
    microscopic structure that carries out individual funcitons within a cell.
  8. Cell
    smallest unit of an organism that carries out all of the basic functions of life
  9. Tissue
    Mass of similar cells and cell products that forms a discrete region of an organ and performs a specific function
  10. How many types of tissues are there? What are they?
    4; Epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular
  11. Organ
    Structure composed of two or more tissue types that work together to carry out a particular function
  12. Organ system, how many systems are there?
    • Group of organs with a particular function
    • 11 organ systems
  13. Organism
    Single complex individual
  14. Reductionism
    Taking the body and breaking it down into small parts in order to better understand each of the complex systems and parts
  15. Discuss: Biology criteria for life

    Organization, why is it important?
    Body's way of maintaining order, if system breaks down disease or death will occur.  
  16. How is the biological criteria for life:

    cellular composition important?
    when cells are compartmentalized into on or more cells
  17. What is metabolism?
    When molecules from the environment are chemically changed into molecules that form their own structure and control their own physiology/ provide energy
  18. anabolism
    metabolic synthesized/ built up
  19. catabolism
    What is metabolic break down
  20. What is excretion?
    What is it called when a cell goes through metabolism waste is produced and must be removed?
  21. Homeostasis
    The body's ability to detect change, react, and oppose it, thereby maintaining a stable environment.
  22. What are the two states of development
    • two types of ------?
    • differentiation: cells are not specialized yet
    • growth: increasing in size/ number
  23. A biological neccesity of cellular survival...
    cellular reproduction is a important because it carries on dna and genetic information and is necessary for a species to------?
  24. evolution
    genetics change and develope over time

    a population must evolve, not one individual
  25. Clinical Variation of a body
    No two bodies are exactly alike
  26. Physiological Variations
    age, sex, physical activity, environmental
  27. why is it important to look at clinical vs physiological differences?
    It is important to look at ----- and -----differences in order to provide the right medications, understand if a diagnosis is correct.
  28. Integumentary System organs
    skin, hair, nails, cutaneous glands
  29. integumentary system functions
    protection, water retention, thermogregulation, vitamin D synthesis, cutaneous sensations, nonverbal communication
  30. Skeletal system organs
    bones, cartilages, ligaments
  31. Skeletal system functions
    support, movement, protective enclosure of viscera, blood formation, mineral storage, electrolyte and acid base balance
  32. Muscular System Organs
    skeletal muscles
  33. Muscular system function
    movement, stability, communications, control of body openings, heat production
  34. Lymphatic system organs
    lymph nodes, lympatic vessels, thymus, spleen, tonsils,
  35. Lymphatic system Functions
    recovery of excess tissue fluid, detectino of pathogens, production of immune cells, defence against disease
  36. respritory system organs
    nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
  37. respritory system functions
    absoption of oxygen, discharge of carbon dioxide, acid base balance, speech
  38. urinary system organs
    kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
  39. urinary system functions
    elimination of wastes regulation of blood volume and pressure stimulation of red blood cell formation, control of fluid, electrolyte and acid base balance, detoxification
  40. Nervous system organs
    brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia
  41. Nervous system function
    rapid internal communication, coordination, motor control and sensation
  42. Endocrine system organs
    pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, thymus gland, adrenal glands, pancrease, testes, ovaries
  43. endocrine system function
    hormone production, internal chemical communicaiton and coordination
  44. Circulatory system organs
    heart, blood vessels
  45. Circulatory System Function
    Distribution of nutritients, oxygen, wastes, hormones, electrolytes, heat, immune cells, and antibodies, fluid, electrolytes, and acid base balance
  46. digestive system organs
    teeth, tongue, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancrease
  47. Digestive system function
    nutrient breakdown and absoption.  Liver functions include metabolism of carbodyrates, lipids, protiens, vitamins, and minerals; synthesis of plasma protiens; disposal of drugs, toxins, and hormones; and cleansing of blood.
  48. male reproductive system organs
    testes, epididymides, spermatic ducts, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, penis
  49. male reproductive system function
    production and delivery of sperm and secretion of sex hormones
  50. female reproductive system organs
    ovaries, uterine tuves, uerus, vagina, mammary glands
  51. female reproductive system function
    production of eggs; site of fertilization and fetal development, fetal nourishment; birth; lactation; secretion of sex hormones
  52. negative feedback
    when the body detects change and activates mechanisms to negate the change
  53. dynamic feedback
    a mix between positive and negative to create a balanced change
  54. positive feedback
    When the change is enhanced or intensified

    oxytocin released during pregnancy to increase a contraction
  55. receptors
    senses change in the body
  56. integration center
    processes the informaiton received by the receptors and mixes it with available information to develope a response
  57. Effector
    Cell organ that carries out the final response