Community and Family Studies
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Bias is a one-sided point of view on a topic or issue.
What is a hypothesis?
A hypothesis is a statement either for or against a topic or issue.
What is the difference between reliability and validity?
Reliability refers to the consistency of research methods, whereas validity is when research measures what it proposes or intends to measure.
Why is sampling used by researchers?
It is used because it is often more cost and time efficient to gather primary data or evidence for a research hypothesis or question.
What are the ethics in research?
Respect - respecting participants information Integrity - the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles Privacy - ensure confidentiality and anonymity for all research participants
Give examples of behaviours that the Board of Studies of HSC regulations will not accept.
- not acknowledging others work
Demonstrate an understanding of the types of data collected by using qualitative and quantitative methodologies.
Qualitative methodologies allow a researchers to obtain people's opinions and ideas which can be collected by interviews, case studies and literature reviews. Quantitative methodologies allow researchers to obtain numerical or statistical data which can be collected by interviews, questionnaires and observations.
Identify the sources of data. (PEOPL)
- people/ individuals
- electronic sources
- organisations/ groups
- print sources
List the main styles of presenting data.
- column graphs
- bar graphs
- line graphs
- pie graphs
Differentiate between an appendix, acknowledgements and a bibliography.
An appendix includes any additional information relevant to the research but not essential of the research report. The acknowledgements allows the researcher to thank all those involved in the research and a bibliography is a list of all the secondary sources consulted during the research process.
There are 11 groups with specific needs that are classified as a unique entity. Identify them.
- Families in crisis
- Gay and Lesbian
- Socioeconomically disadvantaged
- Sole parents
- Aborignal & Torres Strait Islanders
- Chronically ill
Define unique entity.
A unique entity is a distinct thing that makes other groups distinguishable from the other groups which are around the world today in real life.
Identify 3 unique characteristics of the listed groups, rural families, sole parents and chronically ill people, and justify why each group can be considered a unique entity.
Rural families are classified as having lack of access to services, feelings of isolation and possible financial difficulties. They can be considered as a unique entity due to the characteristics. Sole parents are classified as a person who cares for one or more children without a partner, access to financial resources and emotionally unstable. They are considered a unique entity because of the many difficulties one parent meets. Chronically ill people are classified as people who suffer from a permanent, long-lasting or recurrent illness, have financial problems and can be a burden. They are considered a unique entity because of the many special needs to manage their health and/or well-being.
Identify the specific needs of groups within the community.
- Access to services
- Sense of identity
- Security and safety
- Financial support
Describe the specific needs that members of the following groups, socioeconomically disadvantaged and families in crisis might have.
Socioeconomically disadvantaged people can vary in specific needs thought the two main needs with be financial support and access to services. SD people will need financial support to assist them to getting back on to their feet and having access to services will give them a variety of support networks to gain stability again. Families in crisis can also vary in needs for themselves, though the main prioritised needs will be financial support and security and safety. Financial support will support the family in any sort of crisis they are dealing with and the security and safety need will support the family not only to be physically safe but also to feel secure and comfortable.
Justify 3 needs that are priority for each of the following groups, gays and lesbians, the disabled and the aged.
- Gay and lesbians - 1. Sense of identity, 2. Self-esteem, 3. Security and safety
- Disabled - 1. Health, 2. Access to services, 3. Self-esteem
- Aged - 1. Health, 2. Access to services, 3. Security and safety
There are 7 factors affecting access to resources. What are they? (SADGLEE)
- Socioeconomic status
- Ethnicity/ Culture
Discuss how having high socioeconomic status might help people to access resources.
People with a high socioeconomic status are at advantaged to accessing resources as they are more wealthier and can afford the resources they need at its best.
Explain the effects of low socioeconomic status on access to resources.
The people with low socioeconomic status are disadvantaged as they will not be able to afford the resources they need providing them with poor resources to work with.
Outline what it means to be a parent.
Parenting starts at conception, and the roles and responsibilities of parents change as the child matures.
Identify the 4 types of social parents and provide examples of social parenting situations.
Fostering is where a person or a couple becomes the temporary parent or carer of a child or children who are able to live with their own family, e.g. children usually go into foster care because they are at risk of harm or neglect. Adoption is the legal process by which an individual or a couple gain legal rights and responsibilities for the care of a child. Surrogacy refers to the arrangement where a woman becomes pregnant and gives birth to a child for another person who wishes to be a parent. Step-parenting occurs when a person takes on the role of parent of a child who is not biologically related to them e.g. result of marriage.
What is the difference between In-vitro fertilisation and gamete intra- fallopian transfer?
IVF is when the ovum and sperm are united in a test tube to form an embryo. The embryo can then be implanted into a woman's womb. [interiorly fertilisation] GIFT is when a sperm and an egg are placed separately and then injected into the woman's fallopian tube for conception to occur in the woman's body. [exteriorly fertilisation]
What is a carer? What types are there? Provide examples.
A carer is someone who assists another person who is unable to satisfy their own needs due to the person who needs assistants age, illness and/ or disability. A voluntary carer is someone who provides care for another person without being paid e.g. family, friends, neighbours. A paid carer is someone who provides care for another person on a regular basis for payment e.g. nurses, home care carers, nannies
Identify a few implications that can affect the carer and the person being cared for in a planned and unplanned caring situation.
- financial difficulties
- time demands
- pressure on resource management skills
- limited time for socialising
- inability to work full time
- physical and emotional exhaustion
- development of positive relationships
Identify the 4 areas involved in preparation for becoming a parent or carer. Give examples.
Physical changes such as having a balanced diet, maintain good health & level of fitness and reduce stress. Social changes such as feeling socially isolated, decrease late nights and plan more. Emotional changes such as increased stress, conflict between couples and low self-esteem on body image for the mother. Economic changes such as medical expenses, change from dual income to a single income and inflexible work practices.
What factors influence dependants to be affectd by the caring relationship?
A dependant is a person who relies on another person for support to help meet their needs. Factors include the age, skills, capabilities and the special needs of the person who is being cared for.
What factors influence resources to be affected by the caring relationship?
The availability of adequate time, energy, finances and housing are some of the factors that can influence the effective management of resources in the caring relationship.
What are the barriers that influence access to services to be affected by the caring relationship?
Being able to access appropriate services allows parents and carers to better manage their resources effectively. Having the knowledge and skills to access the services they need can greatly enhance their quality of life. Barriers to accessing services include age, gender, level of education/ knowledge, availability of transport, location, time and energy levels, language or culture and confidence.
What reasons do individuals and groups adopt caring roles?
- Paid to do so
- Support another family member
- Career choice
- Want to help others
- Pass on culture and traditions
- Due to a person suffering an injury or illness
What are some expectations society holds for women and men in the parenting and caring role?
Role expectations consists of providing basic needs, establishing family goals and moral values, providing an income and financial security, making a nurturing, loving and understanding home environment and demonstrating reasonable discipline measures upon children and dependents.
What are the factors influencing parenting and caring relationships?
- Style of parenting
- Culture and religion
- Role expectations
- Previous experiences
- Special needs
- Nature of relationship
- Socioeconomic status
Identify the rights and responsibilities in parenting and caring.
- Basic needs
- Education/ schooling
- Discipline/ setting limits
- Legal decisions
- Ability to choose religion
- Medical treatment/ health care
What are the rights of the parents and carers, children and other persons in care?
Parents and carers rights consist of their child's upbringing, their child's religion upbringings, which school they will attend to, where their child will live, etc. Children's rights include the right to survival, the right to develop to the fullest, the right to protection from harmful influences, abuse and exploitation. Other persons in care have the right to receive available services, be treated with dignity, be involved in decisions affecting them and be protected from neglect, abuse and exploitation.
What are the responsibilities of the parents and carers and the children?
The responsibilities that the parents and carers should provide are duty of care, setting limits and discipline, whereas the children's responsibilities are to treat others with respect, maintaining open and honest relationships, caring for others and completing their fair share of the household workload.
List sources of conflict between parents and children.
- the child's need to develop independence
- lack of time
- lack of money
- coping with physical and emotional changes
- feeling trapped by caring responsibilities
- difference in values
- parenting style
- different goals
Name and explain organisations for parents and carers.
- Health services - offer advice and resources to manage medical and health issues.
- Welfare agencies - provide resources to help meet the needs of parents, carers and families.
- Parenting groups - relates to parenting that offer advice, information and support for all parents.
- Community groups - associations in local areas that offer services for parents and children.
- Government agencies - offer payments, services and advice to the public.
- Child-care services - provide care for children while the parent works or has other responsibilities.
- Carers' support groups - offering advice and support for carers.
Give examples for each organisations that support parents and carers.
- Health services - Tresillian family care
- Welfare agencies - The salvation army
- Parenting groups - Parents without partners
- Community groups - Meals on wheels
- Government agencies - Centrelink
- Child-care services - Day-care centres
- Carers' support groups - respite cares
Outline the differences between historical and contemporary definitions of work.
In the past, most work was conducted from the worker's home or land. This was the primary source of production of food and other raw materials. Hence work was traditionally viewed by society as physical labour, conducted purely to satisfy primary needs as for food, shelter and clothing. Nowadays the nature of work is extremely different. Society now perceives work as a means of satisfying not only financial, physical and social needs but also emotional and cultural needs. Work productivity is also valued as a means of political gain, such as in the case of national economic growth and trade agreements.
Many individual and group needs are met through work, what are they? (S4FLECC)
- Financial factors
- Social factors
- Cultural factors
- Social conscience
What are the factors leading to changing work patterns?
- Employment and unemployment
- Gender perceptions
- Family circumstances
- Government policy
Identify how the changing circumstances of parents can affect their management of their multiple roles.
The number of children in a family and the differences in age between the children, children starting school and parents changing employment can affect the parents' ability to manage their multiple roles.
Recognise strategies that families can use to share household duties.
- have family rosters
- allocations of specific duties
- having children complete suitable chores for their age
- outsourcing of tasks e.g. cleaner, garderner
Provide examples of how parents or families can manage their multiple role expectations through efficient time management.
Parents generally have a plan for how to manage time such as packing lunches, paying bills, completing household duties, etc.
Outline how technology helps individuals to manage their multiple roles.
Another efficient time management strategy is the use of labour-saving devices such as dishwashers, online shopping, washing machines, etc.
Explain the role of support networks in helping individuals to manage their multiple roles.
There are formal and informal support networks that can manage family multiple roles. Examples are childcare centres, school bus services, relatives & friends, etc are all useful to balance multiple roles.
Identify a variety of flexible work patterns and practices that support workers with families.
- flexible working hours
- part-time work
- job sharing
- purchased leave
- hours banked
Outline how family-friendly working arrangements promote positive workplace cultures.
It can be productive, efficient and encourage positive well being.It is also cost-efficient, as money does not need to be spent on recruiting and training new staff.
Describe the specific entitlements that enable women to achieve equal access to the workplace.
Describe the role that Equal Employment Opportunity and Affirmative Action play in providing equality for individuals within the workplace.
EEO refers to the concept that everyone, regardless of age, gender, race or disability, should have equal access to employment opportunities. AA refers to taking positive steps to increase the representation of women and minority groups. EEO & AA assist individuals in managing their family and work expectations by promoting flexibility in working arrangements.
Identify the rights of both employees and employers.
- Employees rights include to have equal opportunities, to work in a safe environment, to have access to entitlements, to be paid fairly, to act and dress any way and to work in an environment that is free from any form of discrimination.
- Employers rights include to follow workplace safety procedures, adopt an ethical approach, complete their set duties and responsibilities and meet the conditions of their award or enterprise agreement.
Identify the responsibilities of both employees and employers.
- Employees responsibilities include to obey any lawful and reasonable instruction given by their employer and to work with them to maintain a safe and healthy workplace.
- Employers responsibilities include provide a safe and healthy workplace, not discriminate, keep records on each employee, meet minimum conditions of employment, and keep time and wage records for all employees.
Outline how the rights and responsibilities of employers and employees have changed over time.
- safety in the workplace
- balance of family and work expectations
- meeting of individual needs
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