Anatomy Lecture 3 - Spinal Cord

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Anatomy Lecture 3 - Spinal Cord
2010-06-11 19:57:20

UNLV DPT 744 Gross Anatomy 1 Lecture 3 - Spinal Cord
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  1. In a transverse cut of the spinal cord, what can we see in the shape?
    It is flattened anteriorly to posteriorly
  2. What biomechanical function does the CFS play?
    It keeps the spinal cord suspended in the canal, reducing friction and pressure on it.
  3. What happens to spinal cord with head, neck, and trunk movement?
    The spinal cord acutally bends to accomodate the movements.
  4. The spinal cord runs from where to where?
    From the Medulla Oblongata to the Connus Medularis, at which point it becomes the cauda equina
  5. Where does the spinal cord end?
    It ends at the L1 and L2 level in the blunt form of the conus Medullaris
  6. Where are the two enlargements of the spinal cord?
    At the cervical (C4-T1) and the lumbar (T11-S1) Although technicall the spinal cord ends at L1-L2 at the conus medullaris and then becomes the cauda equina.
  7. How many spinal nerves are there?
  8. Where does the first spinal nerve exit?
    It is the C1 nerve and it exists at the atlanto-occipital joint, between the skull and the axis. So the C1 nerve is superior to C1 vertebrae. So on an so forth until the T1. It is C8 above T1 and T1 spinal nerve below the T1 vertebrae.
  9. How many cervical spinal nerves are there?
  10. Describe what happens at T1 when the spinal cord stops in the blunt form of the conus medullaris.
    At that point the lower lumbar , sacreal and coccygeal nerves extend down forming the cauda equina.
  11. What is the lumbar cisterna?
    • Enlargement of subarachnoid space between inferior end of spinal cord
    • (vertebral level L-2) and inferior end of subarachnoid space or dura
    • mater (vertebral level S2); occupied by the dorsal and ventral roots of
    • lumbosacral spinal nerves (which constitute the cauda equina), the filum
    • terminal, and cerebrospinal fluid.
  12. What is a spinal nerve?
    It is the fusion of the ventral and dorsal roots arising from the spinal cord.
  13. What do the dorsal roots do?
    They carry sensory information. Their cell bodies are located in the dorsal root ganglion.
  14. Where are the dorsal root ganglion located?
    In the intervertebral foramen.
  15. What do the ventral roots do?
    The carry motor information. Cell bodies are located in the gray matter of the spinal cord.
  16. After the dorsal root and ventral root combin to for the spinal nerve, what happens?
    The spinal nerve splits into the Ventral and Dorsal primary rami.
  17. What do the ventral rami do?
    They travel forward provideing motor and sensory innervation.
  18. Which area of the back does not have plexus?
    The Thorax. instead the nerves just travel along the ribs as intercostal nerves.
  19. What do the ventral rami primarily form?
    • They for plexus:
    • Cervical C1-4
    • Brachial C5-T1
    • Lumbar T12-L5
    • Sacral L5-S5
  20. What do the dorsal primary rami do?
    They run posteriorly, providing motor and sensory innervation to the structures of the back.
  21. Which meningial layer is continuos with the brain?
    The Pia mater.
  22. Wich meningial spaces house the CSF?
    The Subarchnoid space.
  23. What ligamnet functions to help centralize the spinal cord?
    The Dentate ligamnet.
  24. The ALL and PLL do not have equal tensile strength. How is balance reached?
    The ligamentum Flavum has equivilant tensile strength to the ALL
  25. In reality, what is the Ligmentum Nuchae?
    It is fanned out supraspinous ligament.
  26. Which tendon does the ligamentum flavum blend with?
    The interspinous ligament.
  27. What is the primary movement of the Atlanto-Occipital joint?
    Flexion and Extension
  28. What is the primary movement of the Atlanto-axial joint?
    Provides rotational movement.
  29. What 4 muscles lie deep to the Semispinalis Capitis?
    • 1. Rectus Capitis Posterior Major
    • 2. Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor
    • 3. Obliquus Capitis Inferior
    • 4. Obliquis Capitis Superior
  30. What do the 4 muscles deep to the semispinalis capitis form?
    They form the suboccipital triagle.
  31. Rectus Capitis Posterior Major OINA
    • O: Spinous Process of C2This process is bifod... :)
    • I: Occipital bone, Inferior to the nuchal line
    • N: Suboccipital N.
    • A: Unilaterally Rotates the head to the same side. Bilaterally, extension of head
  32. Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor OINA
    • O: Posterior arch of C1
    • I: Occipital Bone, inferior to the nuchal line
    • N: Suboccipital N.
    • A: Unilaterally Rotates the head to the same side. Bilaterally,
    • extension of head
  33. Obliquus Capitis Inferior OINA
    • O: Spinous Process of C2
    • I: Xverse process of C1
    • N: Suboccipital N.
    • A: Rotates the head to the same side.
    • (Doesn't actually attach to the occiput)
  34. Obliquus Capitits Superior OINA
    • O: Xverse process of C1
    • I: Posterior aspect of the occipital bone
    • N: Suboccipital N.
    • A: Unilaterally-flex the head. Bilaterally-extension of head
  35. What are the contents of the Occipital Triangle?
    Vertebral artery and the suboccipital nerve
  36. How much longer is the spinal cord in flexion than in extenion?
    7-10 cm
  37. How is the spinal cord continous?
    Mechanically, Chemically, and Electrically
  38. What nerve branches of the spinal nerve to innervate the intervertebral joints?
    The Sinuvertebral nerve and the Nerve to the sygopophyseal joint.
  39. What the ligaments that connect to the dens?
    Apical Ligament, Alar Ligament, and the Transverse ligament.
  40. What can happen if you have Atlanto-Occipital or Atlanto-Axial instability?
    You can end up passing out do to pressure on the spinal cord or vertebral artery.
  41. What is the mane of the PLL at the top?
    Tectorial Membrane
  42. Which muscles attaches to the C2 bifod spinous process inferior to the Obliquus capitis inferior and the rectus capitis posterior major?
    The Semispinalis cervicis. The multifidus is deep to that, then the rotatores.