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- 'Father of the family'
- Oldest male
- 'The power of the father'
- Power of life and death over other family members, decides who his children marry
- The Patron-Client Relationship
- Patron provides legal and physical protection, financial security
- Clients then vote for their patrons (or the way the patrons want them to vote)
- Clients greet patron, escort him to the forum, provide gifts
- Clients and Patrons are connected through bonds of fides
- Father/Father families
- The minority that controlled everything
- The People
- Increasing mobility from plebeian caste to patrician caste over time due to immigration, adoption of a monetary system and diversification of the economy
- 'The ways of our forefathers'
- Traditions and customs that had run the country previously and was considered to be the ideal way to continue to run the country
Ladder of offices
Position of office: Financial officers (20 of them in the cursus honorum)
Position of office: Infrastructure and grain supply (4 of them in the cursus honorum)
Position of office: Judges, military commanders (6 of them in the cursus honorum)They have imperium
Position of office: Heads of state, of which there were two elected each year. They have imperium
- Purpose to serve and protect the plebeian class
- Restricted to the plebeian class
- They had veto power and sancrosanctity
- There were 10 tribunes elected each year
- Power of life and death over Roman citizens
- Power to command armies
- Praetors and Consuls have imperium
- 'protected by the Gods'
- Tribunes had this, and it meant you could not harm them
- Elected every 5 years
- Their job is to conduct the census
- No formal political power, but they do have moral authority
- Appointed to deal with emergencies
- 6 month term
- 'The advice/opinion of the senate'
- The Senate was an advisory body with no formal legislative or electoral powers
Senatus populusque Romanus / SPQR
The Senate and the People of Rome
Small minority of families who have a consular ancestor
- Went from being a sphere of command to meaning a permanent administrative zone
- Pro = in place of
- In place of a consul in provinces.
- Proconsuls can exercise imperium
- Pro = in place of
- In place of a praetors in provinces.
- Propraetors can exercise imperium
Law establishing permanent extortion courts
Wealthy businessmen from the equestrian or plebeian class who bid on tax farming contracts
- 'Horsemen, Knights'
- Equestrian class
- Land patched together by the wealthy from the purchase of small distressed farms
- Soldiers returned from war to find their land now belonging to these plantations
- 'State owned land'
- Rented from the state, but long occupations means virtual ownership
- Monopolized by the wealthy
- Landless urban poor workers
- definition vague in powerpoint presentation
(right of) provocatio
- Right of appeal against abuse by Roman magistrates
- M. Fulvius Flaccus offers it to the Italians
- "Gaul beyond the Alps"
- Roman province
senatus consultum ultimum
- "The final decree of the senate"
- Calling on the consuls to do whatever they deem necessary to save the state
- Martial law
- as in, the Temple of Concord
- Believe in empowering the Senate (using martial law embodied in the senatus consultum ultimum)
- believe that sovereign power belongs to people and should be protected from the senate
- take legislation directly to the people for a vote, bypassing senatorial approval process
- not necessarily altruistic men of the people, but ambitious aristocrats eager to use the power of the people
- 'New man'
- No consular ancestry, the first in his family to achieve the position of Consul
- A roman citizen but not a member of one of Rome's traditional ruling families
- E.g. Gaius Marius
- 'men counted in the census by virtue of having a head'
- i.e. by being alive but owning nothing
Virtue, but also manliness
- Traditional Roman legion consisting of 3 lines of
- Hastati - spearmen
- Principes - Main infantry
- Triarii - Reserve line
civitas sine suffragio
'citizenship without the vote'
federated states/Italian allies
cessation of public business
Sacred boundary of the city of Rome
Enemy of the state
- 'little boy butcher'
- Early nickname of Pompey the Great
'to write down'
dictator legibus faciendis et rei publicae constituendae causa
Dictator for the purpose of making laws ans establishing the Republic
de sicariis et veneficiis
murder and poisoning