Neuroscience - Chapter 1

Card Set Information

Author:
ms.hilton203
ID:
231589
Filename:
Neuroscience - Chapter 1
Updated:
2013-08-27 21:24:47
Tags:
Neuroscience Communication Disorders
Folders:

Description:
Essential Neurological Concepts and Principles
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user ms.hilton203 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What is the cerebral cortex?
    A sheet of six-layered grey matter that covers the cerebral hemispheres
  2. List 11 substrates the brain generates through interactions with the environment
    • Consciousness
    • Cognition (attention, memory, decision making)
    • Symbolic Communcation
    • Learning
    • Knowledge
    • Personality
    • Emotions
    • Thoughts
    • Creative ability
    • Mental imagery
    • Skilled sensorimotor functions
  3. What is the goal of neuroscience?
    To identify and explain the tools the brain uses to acquire and regulate higher mental functions

    To produce basic and skilled actions
  4. What are the 7 branches of neuroscience?
    • 1. Neurology
    • 2. Neuroradiology
    • 3. Neurosurgery
    • 4. Neuroanatomy
    • 5. Neuroembryology
    • 6. Neurophysiology
    • 7. Neuropathology
  5. What is neurology?
    Diagnoses and treatment of nervous system disorders

    E.g. vascular disorder, neoplastic conditions, cortical degenerative conditions, myeline degeneration, motor disorders, deficiency disorders, bacterial and viral infections, cellular toxicity, epileptic disorders, and traumatic brain injury
  6. What is Neurosurgery?
    surgical removal of dysfunctioning structures that impair the functions of the nervous system
  7. What is Neuroanatomy?
    study of structural framework of the nervous system, consisting of nerve cells (neurons) and their tracts
  8. What is Neuroradiology?
    Imaging techniques for differentiating pathologic tissue of CNS; radiation therapy for nervous system tumors is a subspecialty.

    Allows diagnosis w/o intrusion into the cranial cavity and body tissues
  9. What is Neuroembryology?
    study of embryologic origin and development of the nervous system
  10. What is Neurophysiology?
    Study of chemical, electrical, and metabolic functions of the nervous system
  11. What is Neuropathology?
    study of the characteristics and origin of diseases and their effects on the nervous system (nature, cause, and diagnosis)
  12. What are the principles governing the human brain?
    • 1. Interconnectivity in the Brain
    • 2. Centrality of the CNS
    • 3. Hierarchy in Neuraxial Organization
    • 4. Laterality of brain organization
    • 5. Functional Networking
    • 6. Topographical representation
    • 7. Plasticity in the brain
    • 8. Culturally neutral brain
  13. 1. Explain interconnectivity in the brain.
    Has to do w/ the fibers that connect the areas of the brain.

    All functionally specific primary and motor regions of the cerebrum are connected through association and commissural fibers.

    - Cortical association areas are DIRECTLY connected to each other, while primary cortical areas are INDIRECTLY connected through the cortical association areas.

    - the homologous areas of the two hemispheres are connected by interhemispheric commissural fibers.
  14. 2. Explain centrality of CNS.
    The CNS is responsible for integrating all incoming and outgoing information and for generating appropriate responses to the information received.

    **Note: No two parts of the PNS communicate, regardless of their distance/closeness.

    The ability to simultaneously analyze and synthesize multiple sources of information, and to generate distinct responses best exemplifies the brain's centralized organization.
  15. 3. Explain hierarchy of neuraxial organization.
    The neuraxis of the CNS is organized/developed in a hierarchical order of complexity of function.

    - The spinal cord is the lowest level.

    - The brainstem and diencephalon is the intermediate level

    - The cerebral cortex (brain) is the highest

    The complexity of information process increases as the level of processing becomes more brain controlled
  16. Hierarchy of neuraxial organization:

    Spinal Cord
    **The lower levels of organization perform inherent specific functions that are modified in varying degrees by upper axial segments.

    The spinal cord serves simple sensorimotor functions in the form of reflexes that are partly influenced by the upper axial levels
  17. Hierarchy of neuraxial organization:

    Brainstem and diencephalon
    Systems (autonomic, chemical, visceral) react to nonspecific stress and adverse bodily changes to maintain optimal homeostatic states.

    • - Systems contribute to regulation of:
    • 1. consciousness
    • 2. blood pressure
    • 3. respiration
    • 4. sleep
    • 5. temperature
    • 6. endocrine levels
    • 7. neurotransmitter interactions
  18. Hierarchy of neuraxial organization:

    Cerebral Cortex
    Responsible for complex sensorimotor integration and higher mental functions (cognition, language, and speech). 


    Serves the highest organization level of decision making.
  19. 4.Laterality of Brain Organization:

    What are the three important aspects of brain organization?
    1. bilateral anatomic symmetry

    2. unilateral functional differences

    3. contralateral sensorimotor control of the nervous system
  20. Explain bilateral anatomic symmetry.
    Excluding the planum temporale, the two cerebral hemispheres are mirror images of one another.

    The sensorimotor cortices in both hemispheres are connected through the corpus callosum, which is the largest commissural fiber.
  21. Explain unilateral functional differences.
    After the first 2 years, the two hemispheres become functionally specialized. 

    It is speculated that the enlarged planum temporale in the left hemisphere is the reason for its primary specialization in language.
  22. Explain contralateral sensorimotor control of the nervous system.
    • All sensory and motor fibers in the nervous system mediating sensorimotor functions (whether ascending or descending) decussate the body's midline. 
    • - e.g. the left motor cortex controls movements for the right side of the body.

    • **NOTE: While most sensorimotor fibers cross the midline in the lower (caudal) medulla of the brainstem, not all do.
    • - bodily pain and temperature decussate the midline at multiple points in the spinal cord
    • - pathways for hearing cross and recross at numerous levels of the brainstem
    • - visual pathway involves a complex pattern of crossing
  23. 5. Explain Functional Networking
    The neuronal systems are functionally specialized. Nerve cells incorporate specialized specialized receptors and respond to functionally specific stimuli.
  24. 6. Explain topographical representation
    The topicality refers to the way in which information sent is received in the same "order" in the brain (there is discreetness).

    Also, the spatial organization of neurons, tracts, and terminals reflects the spatial relationship of the body surface and functionally related muscle groups with the projected brain areas.
  25. 7. Explain plasticity in the brain.
    Plasticity or neuroplasticity is the brain's ability to change as a result of experience. This includes the brain's ability to reorganize and gradually modify tissue functions when faced with pathologies.

    Sprouting (or the regeneration of nerves) occurs in varying degrees in the nervous system. Less in the CNS, more in the PNS - with its additional nerve trunk coverings which gives it greater opportunity to re-establish connections.

    ** It is not only experience, but also the time of experience that regulates the potential for functional plasticity.
  26. 8. Explain culturally neutral brain
    The brain's basic functioning is the same for all individuals independent of gender, race, culture, etc. It is also unaffected by normal variations in size, shape, and weight.
  27. Technical Terminology: Directional Brain Orientation

    ROSTRAL
    • Brain: towards the nose
    • Spinal cord & brainstem: towards the head
  28. Technical Terminology: Directional Brain Orientation

    CAUDAL
    • Brain: towards the back
    • Spinal cord & brainstem: towards the tail (coccyx)
  29. Technical Terminology: Directional Brain Orientation

    DORSAL
    • Brain: towards the top
    • Spinal cord & brainstem: towards the back (posterior)
  30. Technical Terminology: Directional Brain Orientation

    VENTRAL
    • Brain: bottom of the brain
    • Spinal cord & brainstem: towards the abdomen
  31. Technical Terminology: Planes of Brain Section

    CORONAL
    Vertical section that divides brain into front (rostral) and back (caudal) halves
  32. Technical Terminology: Planes of Brain Section

    SAGITTAL
    Vertical division into left and right halves
  33. Technical Terminology: Planes of Brain Section

    MIDSAGITTAL
    Vertical division into two equal halves (midline)
  34. Technical Terminology: Planes of Brain Section

    HORIZONTAL
    Cross-section division into upper and lower portions
  35. Technical Terminology: Planes of Brain Section

    TRANSVERSE
    Diagonal to cross-place at curving brainstem
  36. Technical Terminology: Planes of Brain Section

    LATERAL
    Structures away from the midline
  37. Technical Terminology: Planes of Brain Section

    MEDIAL
    Structures toward the midline
  38. Technical Terminology: Planes of Brain Section

    PROXIMAL AND DISTAL
    Proximal refers to structures relatively close to a specific anatomic site of reference, whereas distal identifies the structures father from the same anatomic site of reference
  39. Technical Terminology: Terms Related to Limb Movement

    FLEXION
    Bending movement of a limb
  40. Technical Terminology: Terms Related to Limb Movement

    EXTENSION
    Involves the straightening movement of a limb
  41. Technical Terminology: Terms Related to Limb Movement

    ABDUCTION
    A limb is moved away from the central axis of the body
  42. Technical Terminology: Terms Related to Limb Movement

    ADDUCTION
    A limb is moved toward the central axis of the body
  43. Technical Terminology: Terms Related to Limb Movement

    PRONATION
    The movement that turns the palm downward (or lying on the belly)
  44. Technical Terminology: Terms Related to Limb Movement

    SUPINATION
    The action that turns the palm upward (lying on the back)
  45. Technical Terminology: Terms Related to Limb Movement - associated with brain pathology (mostly basal ganglia structures)

    TREMOR
    A repetitive movement secondary to alternate contraction of opposing muscle.


    Two types: RESTING and ACTION

    Resting: (assoc. w/ Parkinson's disease) prominent when body is at rest against gravity

    Action: (assoc. w/ cerebellar pathology) apparent during voluntary muscle contractions
  46. Technical Terminology: Terms Related to Limb Movement - associated with brain pathology (mostly basal ganglia structures)

    AKINESIA
    a lack of voluntary motor activity
  47. Technical Terminology: Terms Related to Limb Movement - associated with brain pathology (mostly basal ganglia structures)

    BRADYKINESIA
    a slowness of movement
  48. Technical Terminology: Terms Related to Limb Movement - associated with brain pathology (mostly basal ganglia structures)

    DYSTONIA
    any atypical posture with abnormally sustained muscle contraction
  49. Technical Terminology: Terms Related to Limb Movement - associated with brain pathology (mostly basal ganglia structures)

    DYSKINESIA
    any involuntary and abnormal movement, but is specially used to mark the restless and squirming movements that appear as a result of treatment of Parkinson.
  50. Technical Terminology: Terms Related to Limb Movement - associated with brain pathology (mostly basal ganglia structures)

    TICKS
    Abrupt and transient stereotypical movements
  51. Technical Terminology: Terms Related to Limb Movement - associated with brain pathology (mostly basal ganglia structures)

    MYOCLONUS
    A sudden and momentary contraction of one or a group of muscles

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview