Orgo Ch 1 Ppts (Pt. 1)

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DesLee26
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Orgo Ch 1 Ppts (Pt. 1)
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2013-08-31 11:20:03
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Chapter One
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CHM 201
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  1. electronic structure of the atom
    an atom has a dense, positively charged nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons
  2. Explain electronic structure of the atom in terms of its electron density.
    the electron density is highest at the nucleus and drops off exponentially with increasing distance from the nucleus in any direction
  3. What are orbitals?
    probabilities
  4. What does every orbital after the 1s orbital contain? Define. Locate.
    • nodes
    • a surface of zero electron density within an orbital
    • at periphery of spheres (least likely place to find an electron)
  5. Explain probability of finding an electron in relation to the nucleus.
    • closer: increase probability
    • further: decrease probability
  6. Explain the shapes of the s orbitals?
    spheres... as you get higher in number, they become spheres within spheres
  7. There are __ 2p orbitals,, oriented at __ to eah other.
    Each p orbital consists of __.
    Each is labeled according to what?
    • 3
    • right angles
    • two lobes
    • orientation along the x, y, or z axis (2px, 2py, 2pz)
  8. Explain the 2px, 2py, and 2pz orbitals.
    they are dumbbell shaped
  9. What is organic chemistry?
    the study of carbon compounds
  10. What makes carbon so special?
    • it has four valence electrons and can form four strong covalent bonds
    • it can also bind with other carbon compounds
  11. Explain the d orbitals.
    • four out of five of them are cloverleaf shaped
    • the fifth is an elongated dumbbell with a doughnut around its middle
  12. What does the graph of a moving electron look like?
    a wave function (Greek letter psi)
  13. Explain the charges of the p orbitals.
    they are arranged perpendicular to one another with each orbital region separated by the node having  different signs, which will affect reactivity
  14. What is the aufbau principle?
    fill the lowest energy orbitals first
  15. What is Hund's Rule?
    when there are two or more orbitals of the same energy (degenerate), electrons will go into different orbitals rather than pairing up in the same orbital
  16. What are valence electrons?
    electrons on the outermost shell of the atom
  17. Explain covalent bonding.
    • electrons are shared between the atoms to complete the octet
    • when shared equally: Nonpolar (pure) covalent
    • when not: polar
  18. Bonding Patterns

    Tell the following of each element:
    For carbon:
    - valence electrons (Group #)
    - # bonds
    - # lone pair electrons
    • - 4
    • - 4
    • - 0
  19. Bonding Patterns

    Tell the following of each element:
    For Nitrogen:
    - valence electrons (Group #)
    - # bonds
    - # lone pair electrons
    • - 5
    • - 3
    • - 1
  20. Bonding Patterns

    Tell the following of each element:
    For Oxygen:
    - valence electrons (Group #)
    - # bonds
    - # lone pair electrons
    • - 6
    • - 2
    • - 2
  21. Bonding Patterns

    Tell the following of each element:
    For Halides:
    - valence electrons (Group #)
    - # bonds
    - # lone pair electrons
    • - 7
    • - 1
    • - 3
  22. Bonding Characteristics of Period 2 elements

    Valence and Lone Pairs of:
    1) carbon
    2) nitrogen
    3) oxygen
    4) hydrogen
    5) halogens
    • 1) 4/0
    • 2) 3/1
    • 3) 2/2
    • 4) 1/0
    • 5) 1/3
  23. Where will a hydrogen atom always lie?
    at the periphery
  24. When looking at Lewis dot structures, do we consider the lone pair of electrons?
    yes, they are regions of electron density and contribute to the geometry of the molecule
  25. True or False:
    Shape= geometry
    • False:
    • shape does not = geometry
    • ex: H20 (shape: bent/ geometry: tetrahedral)
  26. Sharing two pairs of electrons is __? Three?
    • double bonding
    • triple bonding
  27. How important are protons and neutrons?
    not very; they only contribute to mass
  28. Carbon is found in roughly __ compounds. 
    What can it do?
    • 92
    • bond to self and other atoms to form molecules
  29. P orbitals are aligned with __.
    3 Cartesian coordinates
  30. Explain carbon's electron configuration.
    2 electrons in 2s, one in 2px and one in 2py
  31. What can we do with hydrogens?
    saturate a molecule (no double or triple bonds)
  32. What is unique about hydrogen?
    ithas no neutrons in the nucleus; so when an electron is taken away, it becomes a proton
  33. 90% of reactions are __
    What causes the reaction?
    • acid base reactions
    • movement of electron pairs
  34. How many bonds do halides have?
    onlyone
  35. Saturated molecules will be what geometry?
    tetrahedral

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