Biochemistry

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Author:
jay2493
ID:
231595
Filename:
Biochemistry
Updated:
2013-08-27 17:13:11
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Biochem
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Description:
The molecular basis of life and drug action.
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  1. How many amino acids are there?
    twenty
  2. Glycine
    • simplest amino acid
    • not chiral
    • no isomers
  3. Alanine
    contains a methyl group
  4. Name the neutral nonpolar hydrophobic amino acids.
    methionine, valine, proline, glycine, alanine, isoleucine, leucine
  5. Which two amino acids contain sulfur?
    methionine and cysteine
  6. Reversible interactions are __________ so that they may be easily broken.
    noncovalent
  7. Cysteine contains a sulfhydryl group. True or False?
    True
  8. What is biochemistry?
    • -the study of the structure and properties of biological molecules
    • - the molecular basis of life
    • - the molecular basis of drug action
  9. When a Zwitterion goes to an alkaline environment, it becomes fully _________ and acts as a(n) _________
    • 1. deprotonated
    • 2. acid
  10. When a Zwitterion goes to a(n) ___________ environment it becomes fully protonated, and acts as a ___________
    • 1. acidic
    • 2. base
  11. What are the four types of amino acid side chains?
    • 1. Neutral nonpolar hydrophobic
    • 2. Neutral polar hydrophilic
    • 3. Aromatic (hydrophobic or hydrophilic)
    • 4. Charged  (acidic or basic)
  12. Molecular Interactions
    Drugs and the proteins in our bodies are molecules. Drugs produce therapeutic effects by interacting with proteins in our bodies
  13. Amino Acids contain:
    • 1. Basic group
    • 2. Acidic group
    • 3. Chirality (L or D configuration)
    • 4. Amphoteric (can act as an acid or base)
  14. Methionine:
    Contains a thioether: sulfur in its side chain
  15. Proline is the only amino acid with a cyclic structure: true or false?
    True!
  16. Aromatic Amino Acids:
    Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Tryptophan
  17. All aromatic amino acids are hydrophobic: true or false?
    True!
  18. Tyrosine and tryptophan are less hydrophobic than phenylalanine. Why?
    The hydroxyl group on tyrosine and the -NH of the indole group on tryptophan allows them to be less hydrophobic than phenylalanine.
  19. Tyrosine's hydroxyl group can also serve in __________ reactions.
    phosphorylation
  20. Neutral Polar Hydrophilic: Amino Acids
    serine, threonine, asparagine, glutamine, cysteine
  21. Cysteine contains a _____________
    sulfhydryl group
  22. Two cysteines may join together via oxidation. This results in a ___________ and a new molecule called ____________.
    • 1. disulfide bond
    • 2. cystine
  23. Asparagine and Glutamine both have what type of group?
    carboxamide
  24. Charged: Basic Amino Acids
    • These amino acids are: positively charged and  hydrophilic
    • They are: lysine, arginine, histidine
  25. Charged: Acidic Amino Acids
    • These amino acids are: negatively charged and hydrophilic
    • They are: Aspartate and Glutamate
  26. Lysine:
    • Basic
    • Positively charged
    • Hydrophilic group
    • Has an NH3+ epsilon group
  27. Arginine:
    • Basic
    • Positively charged
    • Hydrophilic group
    • Has a guanidino group
  28. Histidine:
    • Basic
    • Positively charged
    • Hydrophilic group
    • Has an imidazole group
  29. Aspartate:
    • Acidic
    • Negatively charged
    • Hydrophilic
    • Carboxyl group
  30. Glutamate:
    • Acidic
    • Negatively charged
    • Hydrophilic
    • Carboxyl group
  31. Peptide bonds:
    • Links 2+ amino acids together
    • Bonds between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of a second amino acid
    • The formation of a peptide bond results in the loss of a water molecule
  32. Peptides with 100+ residues are usually called polypeptides. True or False?
    False? They are called proteins
  33. Peptides with >100 residues are usually called polypeptides. True or False?
    True
  34. How does one determine the direction in which amino acids flow?
    • The amino acid with the free amino group striking out will be first and the amino acid with the free carbonyl striking out will be last. 
    • From N-terminal to C-terminal
  35. Can movement occur about the alpha carbon?
    YES!
  36. Give examples of covalent bonds.
    peptide bonds and disulfide bonds
  37. 2 Cysteines undergo oxidation to form a _______
    cystine
  38. Acidic amino acids:
    • negatively charged 
    • hydrophilic
    • Aspartate and Glutamate
  39. Serine and Threonine can undergo phosphorylation and glycosylation due to their _________ groups.
    -OH
  40. Neutral Nonpolar Hydrophobic Amino Acids
    "MVP GAIL"
    • 1. Glycine: simplest (not chiral, no isomers)
    • 2. Alanine: contains methyl group
    • 3. Methionine: contains sulfhydryl group
    • 4. Proline: cyclic structure
    • 5. Isoleucine
    • 6. Leucine
    • 7. Valine
  41. Neutral Polar Hydrophilic Amino Acids:
    "STAG C"
    • Serine: contains hydroxyl groups
    • Threonine: contains hydroxyl groups
    • Asparagine: contain carboxamide group
    • Glutamine: contain carboxamide group 
    • Cysteine: contains sulfhydryl group
  42. Aromatic Amino Acids:
    • Phenylalanine
    • Tyrosine (less hydrophobic than F)
    • Tryptophan (less hydrophobic than F)
  43. Basic Amino Acids
    • Lysine: epsilon amino group
    • Arginine: guanidino group
    • Histidine: imidazole group
  44. Acidic Amino Acids
    • Aspartate: carbonyl group
    • Glutamate: carbonyl group
  45. Reversible reactions within proteins:
    • Electrostatic interactions
    • H-bonding
    • van der Waals forces
    • hydrophobic interactions

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