Medical Terminology Chapter 1

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cfalgo1
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231607
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Medical Terminology Chapter 1
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2013-08-27 18:34:52
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Medical Terminology
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Medical Terminology
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  1. Course Objectives
    • explain why understanding medical terms is important
    • define each of the four basic word parts
    • describe how word parts are put together to make a term and give an example
    • use the pronunciation key to learn how to pronounce medical terms
    • understand medical terms by analyzing their parts
  2. why use medical terms
    • healthcare proffessionals need to read write speak and understand medical language
    • medical terms are much more precise than everyday words
    • learn medical terms to their full medical meaning to understand medical conditions
  3. most medical terms are made from word parts like
    • prefixes
    • combining forms
    • suffixes
  4. earliest medical practitioners wrote spoke and read in
    greek and latin because these were the languages of science and education
  5. medical terminology comes from a combination of sources
    • word parts derived from early languages
    • modern language
    • proper names
  6. gastr
    comes from the greek word for stomach (gaster)
  7. gastritis
    inflammation of the stomach
  8. gastronomy
    surgical incision into the stomach
  9. gastroesophageal
    pertaining to the stomach and esophagus
  10. physician
    person who has been educated, trarined, and licensed to practice the art of science of medicine (comes from french term physicien)
  11. hair
    keratinized fibers that arise from hair follicles (comes from the Anglo Saxon term- haer)
  12. Kaposi sarcoma
    • type of cancer commonly seen in AIDs patients
    • (originally described by dermatologist, Moritz Kaposi)
  13. Papanicolaou (Pap) test
    microscopic examination of cell collected from the vagina and cervix to detect abnormal changes (was invented by and named after Dr Georgios Papanikolaou)
  14. basic word parts
    • root
    • prefix
    • suffix
  15. angioplasty
    sugical repair of a vessel
  16. angi
    vessel, duct
  17. -plasty
    surgical repair
  18. word root
    • core or main part of the word
    • all medical terms have one
    • more than one root can have the same meaning
  19. cardi
    heart
  20. cerebr
    brain, cerebrum
  21. col, colon
    • colon
    • (section of large intestine)
  22. crani
    cranium, skull
  23. dermat
    skin
  24. disk
    disk (as in disk or spine)
  25. gastr
    stomach
  26. nephr
    kidney
  27. ren
    kidney
  28. oste
    bone
  29. pulmon
    lung
  30. prefixes
    • comes before the word root in a medical term
    • many medical terms are built with prefixes
    • contribute to the meaning of the term
    • always spelled with a hyphen (-) at the end indicating that it is a word part to be attached to another word part coming after it
  31. pre-
    before
  32. post-
    after, behind
  33. peri-
    around, surrounding
  34. intra-
    within
  35. inter-
    between
  36. sub-
    below, beneath
  37. infra-
    below, beneath
  38. supra-
    above
  39. super-
    above
  40. a-
    without, not
  41. an-
    without, not
  42. poly-
    many, much
  43. dys-
    painful, difficult, abnormal
  44. suffixes
    • comes after the word root in a medical term
    • almost all medical terms are built with suffixes
    • contribute to meaning of the term
    • always spelled with a hyphen (-) at the beginning indicating that it is a word part to be attached to another word part coming before it
  45. -ac
    pertaining to
  46. -al
    pertaining to
  47. -ary
    pertaining to
  48. -ic
    pertaining to
  49. -ous
    pertaining to
  50. -algia
    pain
  51. -ectomy
    excision, surgical removal
  52. -gram
    record, recording
  53. -ism
    condition of
  54. -ia
    condition of
  55. -itis
    inflammation
  56. -ium
    tissue, structure
  57. -logy
    stud of
  58. -oma
    tumor
  59. -tomy
    incision
  60. combining vowels
    • added to word roots to make it easier to pronounce
    • usually an O but sometimes it is and I or E
    • best learned along with the word root to which it is attached
  61. combining form
    • word root plus its combining vowel,
    • use word root followed by a slash and then the combining vowel
  62. cardi/o
    heart
  63. cerbr/o
    brain cerebrum
  64. col/o
    colon
  65. colon/o
    colon
  66. crani/o
    cranium, skull
  67. dermat/o
    skin
  68. disk/o
    disk
  69. gastr/o
    stomach
  70. nephr/o
    kidney
  71. ren/o
    kidney
  72. oste/o
    bone
  73. pulmon/o
    lung
  74. rules for using the combining vowel
    • use the combining vowel when a combing form is joined to a suffix that does not begin with a voewl
    • nephr/o + -logy= nephrology
    • arthr/o+ -itis= arthritis
    • if the suffix begins with same vowel as the combining form ends with do not repeat it
    • cardi/o + itis= carditis
  75. combining two combining forms
    • my/o + cardi/o + -al= myocardial
    • oste/o+ arthr/o+ -itis= osteoarthritis
  76. plurals
    • some medical terms use the common -s or -es plural ending
    • many have special plural endings related to origins in greek and latin
  77. plural ending for a
    ae
  78. plural ending for en
    ina
  79. plural ending for ex
    ices
  80. plural ending for yx
    ices
  81. plural ending for is
    es
  82. plural ending for on
    a
  83. plural ending for um
    a
  84. plural ending for us
    i
  85. plural ending for x
    ges
  86. plural ending for nx
    nges
  87. to define a word based on its word parts
    • begin by analyzing the meaning of the suffix
    • then analyze the meaning of the prefix
    • then analyze the meaning of the root or roots

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