SCIENCE FINAL

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lauratwinoaks
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231633
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SCIENCE FINAL
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2013-08-29 00:11:12
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SCIENCE FINAL
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SCIENCE FINAL
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  1. SCIENTIFIC METHOD
    • A CONTINUOUS PROCESS BY WHICH PEOPLE LEARN ABOUT THE
    • PHYSICAL UNIVERSE & SHARE THE KNOWLEDGE WITH OTHERS (OBSERVATION, ASK A
    • QUESTION, DEVELOP HYPOTHESIS, MAKE A PREDICTION; PERFORM EXPERIMENT).
  2. THEORY
    • – FORMAL IDEA BASED ON MANY OBSERVATIONS, EXPERIMENTS, &
    • TESTS.
  3. SCIENCE
    • - TOOL FOR
    • UNDERSTANDING OUR PHYSICAL WORLD AND BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT
  4. GRAVITATIONAL FORCE
    • DEFINITION OF GRAVITY – A FORCE FOUND THROUGHOUT THE
    • UNIVERSE

    FG=(G*MASS1*MASS2)/DISTANCE
  5. NEWTON’S LAW OF
    MOTION
    • 1ST LAW – A MOVING OBJECT WILL CONTINUE MOVING IN
    • A STRAIGHT LINE AND AT A CONSTANT SPEED AND A STATIONARY OBJECT WILL REMAIN AT
    • REST, UNLESS ACTED ON BY AN UNBALANCED FORCE.

    • 2ND LAW – THE ACCELERATION PRODUCED ON A BODY BY A
    • FORCE IS PROPORTIONAL TO THE MAGNITUDE OF THE FORCE AND INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL
    • TO THE MASS OF THE OBJECT

    • 3RD LAW – FOR EVERY ACTION THERE IS AN EQUAL AND
    • OPPOSITE REACTION
  6. LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
    • 1ST LAW: 
    • IN AN ISOLATED SYSTEM, ENERGY CAN BE TRANSFORMED BUT CANNOT BE CREATED
    • OR DESTROYED

    • -         
    • 2ND LAW:  ENTROPY OF AN ISOLATED SYSTEM NEVER DECREASES
  7. TYPES OF ENERGY
    • ·        
    • CHEMICAL –
    • AN ENERGY THAT CAN BE RELEASED DURING A CHEMICAL REACTION

    • ·        
    • KINETIC –
    • THE ENERGY POSSESSED BY AN OBJECT DUE TO ITS MOTION

    • ·        
    • POTENTIAL
    • – THE ENERGY OF AN OBJECT DUE TO ITS POSITION IN SPACE

    • ·        
    • GRAVITATIONAL – (POTENTIAL ENERGY) – ENERGY
    • ASSOCIATED WITH THE POSITION OF A MASS IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD

    THERMAL - THE RANDOM KINETIC ENERGY OF ATOMS AND MOLECULES
  8. TYPES OF HEAT
    TRANSFER –
    • CONDUCTION – TRANSFER
    • OF HEAT ENERGY BY MICROSCOPIC DIFFUSION & COLLISION OF MICROSCOPIC
    • PARTICLES, EX – METAL

    •                 CONVECTION – THE TRANSFER OF HEAT BY
    • THE BULK MOTION OF A SUBSTANCE, EX – WATER

    •                 RADIATION – TRANSFER OF HEAT BY
    • ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION, EX- ELECTRIC HEAT
  9. MAGNETIC FIELDS
    • A CURVED PATTERN OF FORCES THAT ATTRACT OR REPEL MAGNETS (2
    • POLES, N&s, CALLED DIPOLE, CAN BE PRODUCED BY MOVING ELECTRICAL CHARGES)
  10. ELECTRIC FIELDS
    • CURRENTS
    • CAN BE PRODUCED BY CHANGING MAGNETIC FIELDS
  11. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
    • DIFFERENT FROM OTHER TYPES OF WAVES BECAUSE THEY TRANSFER
    • ENERGY WITHOUT TRANSFERRING MASS.
  12. DOPPLER EFFECT
    • DESCRIBES THE WAY FREQUENCY OF A WAVE APPEARS TO SOUND FROM
    • MOVING SOURCE (IF THERE IS A MOTION BETWEEN THE WAVE SOURCE & THE OBSERVER,
    • EX-AMBULANCE)
  13. PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS
    • – AN
    • ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEM ARRANGED BY ATOMIC WEIGHT & ELECTRON ARRANGEMENT;  ATOMIC # DEFINES THE SEQUENCE IN TABLE &
    • NUMBERED ACCORDING TO COMPOSITION (GAS/LIQUID/SOLID)-REFERRES TO #PROTONS IN
    • NUCLEUS
  14. ELEMENTS
    CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE THAT CAN’T BE BROKEN DOWN ANY FURTHER
  15. ATOMS
    SMALLEST PARTICLE THAT RETAINS ITS CHEMICAL IDENTITY
  16. MOLECULES
    • COLLECTION
    • OF 2 OR MORE ATOMS BOUND TOGETHER.
  17. NUCLEUS
    SMALL MASSIVE CENTRAL PART OF AN ATOM
  18. PROTONS
    • POSITIVELY
    • CHARGED NUCLEAR PARTICLE
  19. NEUTRON
    • ELECTRICALLY
    • NEUTRAL NUCLEAR PARTICLE
  20. ION
    ELECTRICALLY CHARGED ATOM
  21. ELECTRONS
    • ATOMIC
    • PARTICLE WITH NEGATIVE CHARGE & LOW MASS
  22. BONDS
    • ·        
    • COVALENT –
    • IN WELL DEFINED CLUSTERS OF ATOMS WHERE THE ELECTRON PAIR ARE SHARED

    • ·        
    • HYDROGEN
    • – A BOND THAT MAY FORM WHEN POLARIZED HYDROGEN ATOMS LINK TO OTHER ATOMS BY
    • A COVALENT BONDF OR IONIC BOND

    • ·        
    • IONIC - CHEMICAL BONDS IN WHICH THE ELECTRICAL FORCE BETWEEN 2 OPPOSITELY CHARGED IONS HOLD THE ATOMS TOGETHER (FORMS CRYSTAL LATTICE HOLD TOGETHER BY HYDROGEN BONDS
  23. ENDOTHERMIC
    ENERGY (HEAT) THAT IS ABSORBED
  24. EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS
    • ENERGY
    • IS RELEASED IN THE FORM OF HEAT OR LIGHT
  25. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTANCE
    • THE
    • EASE WITH WHICH ELECTRONS CAN FLOW THROUGH A MATERIAL
  26. ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE
    • PHENOMENOM OF ELECTRONS MOVING THROUGH A METAL COLLIDING
    • WITH IONS OF THAT METAL.  SOME ENERGY IS
    • THEN LOST IN THE COLLISIONS & IS CONDUCTED TO FASTER IONIC VIBRATIONS
  27. COMPUTERS
    • BASIC UNIT IS TRANSISTOR; OPERATES SEQUENTIALLY, SOMETIMES
    • PARALLEL, BUT LIMITED IN NUMBER
  28. HUMAN BRAIN
    • – BASIC
    • UNIT IS A NERVE CELL; HIGHLY CONNECTED MORE THAN ANY KNOWN SYSTEM
  29. ISOTOPES
    • ATOMS WHOSE NUCLEI HAVE THE SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS BUT A
    • DIFFERENT NUMBER OF NEUTRONS
  30. NUCLEAR FISION
    • THE SPLITTING OF A NUCLEUS
    • EX) POWER PLANT, NUCLEAR BOMBS
  31. NUCLEAR FUSION
    • PROCESS IN WHICH 2 ATOMS OF HYDROGEN COMBINE TOGETHER, OR
    • FUSE, TO FORM AN ATOME OF HELIUM
  32. ENERGY SOURCE OF STARS
    NUCLEAR FUSION
  33. SCIENTIFIC NAMES
    GENUS(HOMO)-SPECIES(SAPIENS)
  34. LIVING THINGS
    • REQUIRES LIQUID WATER, MAINTAIN A HIGH DEGREE OF ORDER &
    • COMPLEXITY, PART OF LARGER SYSTEM, DEPENDS ON CHEMICAL REACTIONS THAT TAKE PLACE IN THE CELLS& DEVELOP, REGULATE ENERGY USE, SHARE A GENETIC CODE, DESCENDED FROM A COMMON ANCESTOR
  35. CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
    • LINNEAN CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM (KING PHILLIP CAME OVER FOR
    • GREAT SPAGETTI – KINGDOM, PHYLUM, CLASS, ORDER, FAMILY, GENUS, SPECIES)
  36. CELL MEMBRANES
    • OUTER LAYER, COMPOSED OF A DOUBLE LAYER OF ELONGATED
    • MOLECULES CALLED LIPIDS
  37. ORGANELLES
    • SPECIALIZED
    • STRUCTURES WITHIN A CELL - ENERGY
  38. PHOTOSYNTHESIS
    • THE MECHANISM BY WHICH PLANTS CONVERT ENERGY OF SUNLIGHT
    • INTO ENERGY STORED IN CARBOHYDRATES PROVIDES THE CHEMICAL ENERGY OF MOST
    • SPECIES
  39. ORGANIC MOLECULES
    • CONTAIN
    • CARBON
  40. ENZYMES
    • A MOLECULE THAT FACILITATES REACTIONS BETWEEN TWO OTHER
    • MOLECULES, BUT WHICH IS NOT ITSELF ALTERED OR TAKEN UP IN THE OVERALL ACTION
  41. DNA
    • DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC;
    • BUILT WITH ADENINE, GUANINE, CYSTONINE, THYMINE
  42. RNA:
    • RIBONUCLEIC;
    • BUILT WITH ADENINE, GUANINE, CYCSTONINE, & URICILL
  43. CANCER
    • UNREGULATED
    • REPRODUCTION OF CELLS IN TISSUES OR ORGANS
  44. WHICH PHASE DESCRIBES ELECTRICAL RESISTANCES
  45. ALL LIVING THINGS
  46. DISCIPLINE OF THE SCIENCE
  47. WHAT KIND OF ENERGY DOES A PERSON NOT EXPERIENCE DURING SKYDIVING
    CHEMICAL
  48. FUNDAMENTAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES & OTHER WAVES
    EM WAVES TRANSFER ENERGY WITHOUT TRANSFERRING MASS
  49. PARTS OF AN ATOM
  50. 5 KINGDOMS
    PLANTS -ANIMALS- FUNGI
    PROSTISTA - SINGLE CELL, NUCLEUS
    MONERA - SINGLE CELL, NO NUCLEUS

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