Organic Macromolecules

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Lachayn3
ID:
231644
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Organic Macromolecules
Updated:
2013-08-30 18:28:15
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Organic Macromolecules
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Organic Macromolecules
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  1. CARBOHYDRATES
    C, H, and O with 2 H's for every O

    • A) Monosaccharides    (simple)
    •    1) Pentose     (5 C's)

    •         a) ribose
    •         b) deoxyribose

        2) Hexose    (6 C's)

    •        a) glucose
    •        b) fructose
    • B)  Disaccharides
    •     1) sucrose(table sugar= glucose + fructose)

    • C)Polysaccharides        (complex)
    •                      
    • 1) starch ---- (storage in plants)                     
    • 2) glycogen --( storage in animals, glucose monomer)   
    • 3) cellulose --(structural in plants, not digestable by humans>dietary fibe
  2. LIPIDS
    • A)  Triglycerides --- 3 FA's + Glycerol            Fatty Acid=chains of carbons bonded to hydrogen with a COOH (carboxyl) group at one end
    •                       
    • 1) fats  ----(solid, saturated FA's)                     
    • 2) oils  ----(liquid, unsaturated
    • = any double bonds between the carbon atoms)

    B)  Phospholipids --- 2 FA's + neg. charged phosphate/ glycerol

    • polar hydrophilic head                         
    • nonpolar hydrophobic FA tail

    C)  Steroids ------variations of 4 carbon rings

    •                        
    • 1) cholesterol                       
    • 2) hormones
    •      a) estrogen
    •      b)testosterone

    • D)  Lipoproteins -- lipids surrounded by proteins
    • to make more soluable in water (blood)                         
    • 1) LDL - low desity                         
    • 2) HDL-  high density
  3. PROTEINS
    polymers of amino acids (central C bound to H, COOH, amino-NH2 ,R) their function is highly dependent on their specific structure - 10 , 20 , 30 , 40  


    • A)  structural components- e.g. collage
    • B) hormones – e.g. insulin, epinepherine 
    • C) enzymes – e.g.- amylase           
    • D) transport- eg. hemoglobin
    • E) contractile (muscle)–e.g. actin, myosin 
    • F)  immune-eg. antibodies                          
  4. NUCLEOTIDES
    phosphate + pentose sugar + one of 5 nitrogenous base

    2 distinct substances, but both are made of the nucleotide monomer:

    • A) energy carriers
    •                           
    • 1) ATP = adenosine (adenine +
    • ribose) triphosphate does not form polymers, always functions as a single molecule

    • B) Nucleic acids:
    • Are the polymers of the “building blocks” (monomers) that are nucleotides
    •                 
    • 1) DNA
    •   a)  the pentose sugar = deoxyribose
    •   b)  the nitrogenous base is: adenine,      guanine, cytosine, or thymine  

    • 2) RNA
    •    a) the pentose sugar =  ribose
    •    b) the nitrogenous base is: adenine, guanine, cytosine, or uracil

     

     

     

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