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______ were a group of English Puritans who left England to seek religious freedom. They first went to the Netherlands, and in 1620 to America. They were sponsored by Thomas Weston and other merchants who had received a patent for a settlement from the Virginia Company of London. Eighteen families went across the Atlantic in the Mayflower with the agreement that they would send back goods to England to pay for their new land. In November of 1620, the Mayflower landed at Plymouth, outside the bounds of Virginia. Since they had
no legal right to be there, leaders and forced adult males in the group to sign the Mayflower Compact that created a civil government for all of them, also called a "civil body politic" under the sovereignty of James I. This group of Puritans known as "Pilgrims" created the colony of Plymouth Plantation. The colony was aided by the knowledge of local Indians.
_____ came to North America as part of Elizabethan expansion in 1558, because of a lust for action and a readiness to lead overseas adventures. In 1587, _____ sponsored a colony on Roanoke Island off of what is now North Carolina. _____ founded this colony based on the dream of a place where the English, Spanish, and Blacks could live together
in a productive colony sponsored by England. The leader of the colony, John White, went back to England to get supplies however, when he returned he found nothing. Roanoke came to be known as the "Lost Colony". The failure of Roanoke delayed the establishment of more English colonies for seventeen years.
Sir Walter Raleigh
_____ , an associate of Sir Walter Raleigh and a geographer, was a member of the company of adventures promoting the colonization of Virginia. He published collections of explorers’ accounts The Principle Navigations, Voyages and Discoveries of the English Nation. He argued that England needed colonies to protect itself against Spain. His books circulated widely, popularizing the idea of settlement and enticing interest in it throughout England.
_____ was chartered by King James I in 1606 for merchants and others who wanted to set up
trading colonies in America, from Maine to the Potomac. A colony was founded on the Maine coast, but failed after one harsh winter. The charter of the failed _____ was bought by a group of Puritan Separatists, who were seeking to escape religious intolerance. Puritans established Plymouth Colony in 1620 near the place where the previous colony failed.
Virginia Company of Plymouth
_____ was chartered by King James I in 1606 to settle lands extending from Cape Fear north to the Hudson River (made possible after Spain renounced its claims to Virginia). This grant overlapped with the one issued to Virginia Company of Plymouth, and it was understood that the land in question would go to first successful colonizer. 105 settlers dispatched to settlement on the James River near Chesapeake Bay (called Jamestown) in 1607. First colonists (mostly single men of English gentry) searched for gold and failed to plant crops. By the time relief ships arrived in January 1608, only 38 survivors remained. Company gave control of Jamestown in September 1608 to Captain John Smith (28, experienced in wars against Spanish and Turks). Smith instituted harsh discipline, organized settlers and required them to build houses and plant food. When Smith returned England after serious injuries, of the 500 residents in Sept. 1609, only 100 lived to May1610. By 1625, the Virginia Co. of London declared bankruptcy after years of wars against Indians and Virginia became a royal colony.
Virginia Company of London
_____ was founded in 1607 by the Virginia Company of London, near the Chesapeake Bay. The first colonists hunted for gold instead of farming and the colony was run by anarchy until the arrival of John Smith in 1608, a soldier who instituted harsh
discipline. The colony was also plagued by many problems with the Indians, except when Smith was in charge. Smith had to leave in 1609 and the colony crumbled. Shortly after John Rolfe took over and introduced the growing of tobacco, which helped them prosper. In 1619 the colony started the House of Burgesses, the beginning of representative government in North America.
_____ left for America with the London Company in 1606. Upon arrival he was appointed to the governing council of Jamestown. He helped to establish trade routes and lead colonists and settlers through the winter of "starving time" as a resourceful leader only losing 12 men. He was also successful in creating good ties with the Powhatan Confederacy.
Captain John Smith
_____ was an Englishman who married Pocahontas and figured out how to grow tobacco in Virginia. Virginia had previously been relatively small due to a lack of profitable exports and war with the Powhatan Indians. By 1619, Virginia was making enormous profits by exporting the tobacco. The Virginia Company then financed the colony and brought over many more settlers (mostly families and women to encourage permanence).
_____ was the first elected assembly in British North America. It was established in Virginia in 1619 and was comprised of 22 burghesses (2 chosen by the planters of each town or plantation) and the governor. By mid-17th century, the government of Virginia split into a bicameral legislature—the elected _____ became its lower house and the
Governor's Council or upper house was appointed by the crown. This form of legislation became the prototype for US congress.
The House of Burgesses
Eighteen families went across the Atlantic in the Mayflower with the agreement that they would send back goods to England to pay for their new land. In November of 1620, the Mayflower landed at Plymouth, outside the bounds of Virginia. Since they had no legal right to be there, leaders and forced adult males in the group to sign the _____ that created a civil
government for all of them, also called a "civil body politic" under the sovereignty of James I.
The group of Puritans known as
_____ created the colony of Plymouth Plantation .
John White, went back to England to get supplies however, when he returned he found nothing. _____ came to be known as the "Lost Colony".
In the a bicameral legislature—the elected House of Burghesses became its lower house and the _____ or upper house was appointed by the crown. This form of legislation became the prototype for US congress.