Vet histology lecture 1& 2

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dmandrus
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Vet histology lecture 1& 2
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2013-09-04 19:48:23
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Vet histology lecture 1& 2
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  1. Do lipid bilayers actually bond to eachother? Do they take energy to come together?
    No they do not bond they simply come together because it is much more favourable than being surrounded by water, therefore it is spontaneous and takes no energy
  2. Describe a phospholipid in terms of polarity
    amphipathic
  3. How many membranes does a eukaryote have in the entire cell? prokaryote? how does the prokaryotic system differ for functions such as energy production and protein production?
    • many many
    • essentially only 1
    • all of the energy and protein production will be done on the plasma membrane in a prokaryote
  4. Are all ribosomes attached to the RER? where are they primarily in prokaryote?
    • No there are some free floating
    • plasma membrane inside
  5. in a eukaryote does the plasma membrane compose lots of the membrane total?
    NO
  6. is the lipid bilayer symmetric at all? is it the same on the outside as the inside?
    NO not at all none of those are true
  7. Where does the permeability of the membrane come from?
    Protein channels
  8. does the polarity on a protein spanning the entire membrane change or is it constant?
    Changes ofcourse
  9. are phospholipids stuck in one spot on the membrane?
    NO the fluid mosaic model basically says they can all move around all they want their may be some tougher spot but an individual phospholipid doesn't stay in the same place for long
  10. Can proteins move around the membrane?
    Yes but not to the same extent that phospholipids can, they may be anchored by microtubules or even lipid rafts
  11. What forms a lipid raft
    Cholesterol to keep particularly important proteins in place
  12. While many membrane bound organelles are created by___ (multiple words or sentence), _____ 's derivation is best described by the ___________ theory lending to its unique traits
    • simply endocytosis of an area of the membrane with the specialized equipment (recall proks had it on the plasma membrane)
    • mitochondrias
    • endosymbiotic
  13. WHat are some unique traits of the mitochondria which lends evidence to the endosymbiotic theory
    • has its own DNA
    • self replicating
    • respiration occurs on the inside membrane
    • have their own prokaryotic ribosome
  14. What were some benefits of endocytosis and compartmentalized organelles?
    Greater specialization as well as control over special compartments, it also could make better use of the volume inside the cell instead of only having functional systems on the plasma membrane
  15. During endocytosis or exocytosis is the outside every exposed to the inside?
    Nope
  16. Essentially base on the theory that all organelles are just endocytoticly formed the inside of all of them would be originally?
    outside fluid
  17. What is meant by tri-laminar plasma membrane
    3 layers of plasma membrane visible from electron micrograph 2 head layers and one tail layer.
  18. is the majority of the plasma membrane made up of phospholipids??
    Probably although a large amount is also proteins so it is not always
  19. What are 5 membrane functions?
    • Protein synthesis
    • Secretion
    • Respiration
    • Transmembrane transport
    • Pinocytosis, phagocytosis and exocytosis and endocytosis
  20. Endocytosis is broken up into
    • pinocytosis
    • phagocytosis
  21. In reference to what a cell does, cell drinking is_____ cell eating is _____ and cell defecating is ______
    • Pinocytosis
    • Phagocytosis
    • Exocytosis
  22. So the two main headings of a cells transportation across the membrane is endocytosis and exocytosis what do you call the coordinated combination of the two too transverse the cells distance
    Transcytosis
  23. What are the two ways endocytosis can occur? Explain each of them
    • Endocytosis by smooth vesicles- simply cell indiscriminantly absorbing from outside environment, seen more in capilleries and can be paired with transcytosis
    • Endocytosis by coated vesicles - Special area covered in receptors to catch the specific something it is looking for (receptor mediated endocytosis)
  24. What have viruses and bacteria done with endocytosis and exocytosis?
    They have hijacked this entire system to use it for their own purpose of infecting and enter the cell
  25. What are 4 components of the nucleus that we learned of? Describe each slightly.
    • Nuclear envelope - Membrane surrounding nucleus
    • Chromatin -all tangled and indistinguishable DNA lengths within nucleus
    • Nucleolus - Area of nucleus where ribosomes are made specifically, in heavy protein making cells it can be distinguished
    • Nuclear matrix - Nuclear skeleton
  26. What are two things attached to the nuclear envelope?
    • Ribosomes
    • ER
  27. Do all cells have 1 nucleus? Explain?
    • NO some can have more than 1 = macrophages, skeletal muscles etc
    • Some can have less than one nucleus = Red blood cells
  28. To eat solid particles a cell partakes in ?
    Phagocytosis
  29. Where do we see the dark dense chromatin in the cell? What is this? What is it in contrast too?
    • Around the edges of the nucleus
    • Heterochromatin
    • Euchromatin
  30. What is the glue that is used to attach heterochromatin to the inside fo the nucleus
    Lamins or fibrous lamina
  31. Which chromatin is more active and less tightly packed, heterochromatin or euchromatin?
    Euchromatin
  32. Why can we see the membrane of a nucleus under a light microscope? Is it because it is thick enough?
    NO it is because the heterochromatin attaches on and makes it appear thicker and more visible
  33. What do pores appear as under a microscope?
    A break in the heterochromatin
  34. Is a pore like an uncontrolled hole?
    No it has basically a plug in it to control the flow and regulate what goes inside
  35. Describe how DNA is wound in chromatin starting with the DNA helix and ending with coiled nucleoprotein fiber
    DNA helix is wrapped around the ball called histones and then packed into a 4 pack called an octomer of histones Which is stuck end to end with other octomers to form a nuclear protein filament Which is wound again to form a nuclear protein fiber
  36. is the nucleolus all one piece of chromatin?
    No it is all the chunks of chromatin from every individual chromosome that have to do with making ribosomes all congregated into one area
  37. When you see a nucleolus you know a cell is engaged in?
    Protein production
  38. Is a nucleolus homogenous or does it have its own sections?
    Has its own sections
  39. What are the 4 sections of the nucleoulus we learned?
    • Nuclear organizer region
    • fibrillar region
    • Granular region
    • nucleolar associated chromatin
  40. During mitosis what happens to the nucleus?
    • Dissapears
    • Dissovles and the chromtins are pulled apart via spindles on the end
  41. How many membranes on a mitochondria? Which is permeable?
    • 2
    • Outer
  42. Why are the folds of the inside of the mitochondria so important? What can you tell by them?
    • Cause increase SA
    • Can tell if engaging in ATP or lipid production (longitudinal = ATP production, tubular fingerlike prjections = lipid production)
  43. Inner part of mitochondria called?
    Mitochondrial matrix
  44. How does the mitochondria decide if the cell lives or dies?
    Because mitochondria gives all apoptotic signals
  45. How are mitochondria replicated?
    Like a bacteria, formed from a predescessor (budding)
  46. in terms of the inner membrane of the mitochondria describe cristae and tubuli
    tubuli is the name for the finger or tube like foldings of the inner mitochondria when in lipid biosynthesis mode and cristae are the shelf patterns seen when the mitochondria are in ATP producing mode

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