colligative properties

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Author:
directlyobservable
ID:
231662
Filename:
colligative properties
Updated:
2013-08-27 23:46:09
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chem properties solutions
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Description:
colligative properties (Vapor pressure depression, B.P. point elevation, M.P. depression, Osmotic pressure)
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  1. colligative property?
    any property of a (aq) that s when the [(aq)] /s
  2. B.P. elevation ↑ the [(aq)] → ↑ B.P. of the (aq) B.P. elevation-Reason for B.P. ↑ ?
    adding (solu) ↓ vapor pressure of (aq) due to fewer # of molecules @ surface of (aq) that can vaporize
  3. B.P. elevation-Reason for B.P. ? adding (solu) ? vapor pressure of (aq) due to fewer # of
    molecules @ surface of (aq) that can vaporize
  4. ?Tb= Kbm
    (Eqn for relationship btwn [ ] & B.P.) ?Tb= ? in B.P.
  5. Kb= ebullioscopic constant (0.52°C/m for H20)
    m= effective molality of (s)
  6. effective molality molality of the particle in the (aq)
  7. effective molality-covalent compounds: effective molality-covalents = same as regular molality, bc the
    molecules don't ionize in H20
  8. effective molality-ionic compounds: effective molality-ionics = (regular molality) x (# of ions in
    compound)
  9. colligative properties-
    • M.P. depression (aq)s melt @ lower temps than (l)s bc the (s) molecules disturb the
    • intermolecular forces btwn the solvent molecules
  10. disturbing im. forces btwn solvent molecules? less E needed to break up the solid
  11. (Eqn. for relationship btwn [ ] & M.P.) ?Tf= Kfm
    • ?Tf= ? in freezing point
    • Kf= cryoscopic constant (1.86°C/m for H20)
    • m= effective molality
  12. Note: rules for effective molality = same used for B.P.
  13. colligative properties-
    Vapor Pressure ? the > conc. a (aq) = the lower the vapor pressure
  14. colligative properties-
    • osmotic pressure ? osmotic pressure= force w/ which a pure (s) moves across a semipermeable
    • barrier/membrane into container w/ a (aq)
  15. osmotic pressure ?-Reason for osmotic pressure ? occurs bc (solv) tend to diffuse across barriers in
    • ways that ? ? the difference in [ ]
    • Note: > differrence in [ ] = stronger force of osmosis
  16. colligative properties-
    conductivity of electricity electrolytes= (aq)s able to conduct electricity
  17. electrolytic (aq)s= (aq)s where ionic compounds are the (solu)
  18. more [(ionic aq)]= ? ability to conduct electricity
    bc. ? # of ions present= ? # of e- able to move

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