Quarter 4 GI Pathology: Disease of esophagus

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  1. Partial displacement of the stomach into the thorax
    Hiatus Hernia
  2. What is the most common form of hiatus hernia
    sliding hernia
  3. What are the 3 most common clinical presentations of hiatus hernia?
    • Reflux esophagitis
    • Ulceration
    • Bleeding
    • anemia
  4. What cause of dysphagia is a result of a reduced number of ganglion cells in the myenteric plexus
    • Achalasia (greek for non-relaxing)
    • LES motor dysfunction
  5. What age range most commonly develops Achalasia
    40 - 70 yrs
  6. What are the primary clinical presentations of achalasia?
    • dysphagia
    • wt. loss
    • regurgitation
    • chest pain
  7. What disease is associated with 5% of patients with Achalasia
    Squamous carcinoma
  8. What are the three abnormalities of Achalasia
    • Aperistalsis
    • relaxation of LES (Lower esophageal sphincter)
    • Increase resting tone of LES
  9. Out pouching of the alimentary tract that contains all visceral layers
  10. What is a diverticula that occurs above the UES and what causes it?
    • Zenker Diverticulum¬†
    • Cricopharyngeal motor dysfunction
  11. What type of diverticula occurs immediately superior to the LES and what is the cause
    Epiphrenic diverticulum
  12. What is Mallory-Weiss Syndrome
    Longitudinal tears at the esophago-gastric junction (common in alcoholics)
  13. What percent of people with ruptured esophageal varices die in the first episode
  14. what percent of the adult population has esophagitis in the USA
  15. what may refux esophagitis lead to
    Barret esophagus
  16. What are the three main causes of reflux esophagitis
    • decreased les tone
    • sliding hiatal hernia
    • increased gastric volume
  17. Metaplasia of the distal esophageal mucosa with columnar cells
    Barrett esophagus
  18. what may barret esophagus lead to
    • squamous cell carcinoma
    • columnar cell carcinoma
  19. What are the four red flag symptoms of the esophagus
    • Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)
    • Odynaphagia (painful swallowing)
    • Upper Gastrointestinal bleeding
    • Weight loss
  20. What is the most common type of esophageal tumor
    squamous cell carcinoma
  21. Where is pain relative to the upper 2/3 of the esophagus associated in squamous cell carcinoma
    Upper back and chest
Card Set:
Quarter 4 GI Pathology: Disease of esophagus
2013-08-29 13:08:51
robbins path 798 809

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