Quarter 4 GI Pathology: Disease of esophagus

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bradley.knox
ID:
231670
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Quarter 4 GI Pathology: Disease of esophagus
Updated:
2013-08-29 09:08:51
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robbins path 798 809
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GI
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  1. Partial displacement of the stomach into the thorax
    Hiatus Hernia
  2. What is the most common form of hiatus hernia
    sliding hernia
  3. What are the 3 most common clinical presentations of hiatus hernia?
    • Reflux esophagitis
    • Ulceration
    • Bleeding
    • anemia
  4. What cause of dysphagia is a result of a reduced number of ganglion cells in the myenteric plexus
    • Achalasia (greek for non-relaxing)
    • LES motor dysfunction
  5. What age range most commonly develops Achalasia
    40 - 70 yrs
  6. What are the primary clinical presentations of achalasia?
    • dysphagia
    • wt. loss
    • regurgitation
    • chest pain
  7. What disease is associated with 5% of patients with Achalasia
    Squamous carcinoma
  8. What are the three abnormalities of Achalasia
    • Aperistalsis
    • relaxation of LES (Lower esophageal sphincter)
    • Increase resting tone of LES
  9. Out pouching of the alimentary tract that contains all visceral layers
    Diverticula
  10. What is a diverticula that occurs above the UES and what causes it?
    • Zenker Diverticulum¬†
    • Cricopharyngeal motor dysfunction
  11. What type of diverticula occurs immediately superior to the LES and what is the cause
    Epiphrenic diverticulum
  12. What is Mallory-Weiss Syndrome
    Longitudinal tears at the esophago-gastric junction (common in alcoholics)
  13. What percent of people with ruptured esophageal varices die in the first episode
    40-50
  14. what percent of the adult population has esophagitis in the USA
    5%
  15. what may refux esophagitis lead to
    Barret esophagus
  16. What are the three main causes of reflux esophagitis
    • decreased les tone
    • sliding hiatal hernia
    • increased gastric volume
  17. Metaplasia of the distal esophageal mucosa with columnar cells
    Barrett esophagus
  18. what may barret esophagus lead to
    • squamous cell carcinoma
    • columnar cell carcinoma
  19. What are the four red flag symptoms of the esophagus
    • Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)
    • Odynaphagia (painful swallowing)
    • Upper Gastrointestinal bleeding
    • Weight loss
  20. What is the most common type of esophageal tumor
    squamous cell carcinoma
  21. Where is pain relative to the upper 2/3 of the esophagus associated in squamous cell carcinoma
    Upper back and chest

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