A&PII EXAM I

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HMM203
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23171
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A&PII EXAM I
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2010-06-13 14:40:42
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EXAM
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a&p II
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  1. 1. Anatomy

    2. Gross Anatomy

    3. Physiology
    1. Study of structure

    2. macroscopic strucuture

    3. function
  2. 6 Levels of Organization
    • Chemical
    • Cell
    • Tissue
    • Organ
    • System
    • Organism
  3. Lateral/ Medial
    Away/towards midline
  4. Proximal/distal
    towards/away from point of origin
  5. Anterior/ Posterior
    Ventral (frontside)/ Dorsal (backside)
  6. superior(cranial)/inferior(caudal)
    above(towards head)/below(towards tail)
  7. superficial/deep
    external / internal
  8. ipsilateral / contralateral
    same side / opposite side
  9. Sagital / midsagittal
    left & right portions
  10. transverse
    superior & inferior portions
  11. Frontal
    anterior &posterior portions
  12. Dorsal Cavity consists of ____ & _____.
    Cranial - contains brain

    vertebral - contains spinal cord
  13. Ventral/ Viscera Cavity contains ____&____&_____.
    • thoracic ( diaphragm) contains heart and lungs
    • abdominal contains liver, stomach, intestines
    • pelvic contains reproductive and urinary structures
  14. 
  15. Homeostasis
    • balance, dynamic equilibrium
    • a. sensors, control center, effectors
    • b. positive/ negative feedback loops
  16. Anatomy of ANS
    • 1. visceral efferent of Peripheral Nervous System
    • 2. Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands
    • 3. Below concious level (involuntary)
  17. Sympathetic Nervous System
    • part of the ANS
    • 1. expends energy
    • 2. preganglionic neurons T1 - L2
    • 3. Adrenal medulla
  18. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    • part of the ANS
    • 1. Conserves energy
    • 2. Preganglionic neurons S2-S4; Cranial Nerves III, VII, IX, X
    • 3. Not to skin, blood vessels
  19. Neurotransmitters of ANS
    • Acetylcholine Cholinergic nerve fibers
    • a. Parasympathetic Pre & Postganglionic fibers
    • b. Sympathetic Preganglitionc fibers
    • Norepinephrine Adrenergic nerve fibers
    • a. Sympathetic Postganglionic fibers
  20. The Autonomic Nervous System is controlled by the_______.
    Hypothalamus
  21. When I say endocrine system you say....
    • HORMONES
    • create dynamic equilibrium (homeostasis)
  22. 5 Functions of the Endocrine System
    • 1. Regulatory System
    • 2. Maintains homeostasis internally
    • 3. Responds to help cope with environmental changes
    • 4. Growth & development
    • 5. Reproduction
  23. Exocrine vs. Endocrine glands
    • Exocrine releases contents into ducts or skin surface.
    • Endocrine glands are ductless and release contents into blood.
  24. Definition of Hormone
    Chemical messenger carried by bloodstream, made by endocrine glands.
  25. Hormone Structure
    organic, amino acids, cholesterol derivatives
  26. Hormone Transport
    • Many are bound to specific carrier proteins so you don't urinate them out. They are inactive when bound. Become active once they are transported and released by carrier protein.
  27. Hormone Action

    * need to organize this card*
    • a. Target cell - responds to certain hormone (lock and key system)
    • b. Receptors are within Plasma membrane or within target cell
    • c. Second messenger cAMP
    • 1. Stimulatory
    • 2. Inhibitory
    • d. Activation of genes - hormones turn genes on - goes into cell nucleus.
    • 1. Hormonal interrelationships
    • 2. N.S. & Endocrine relationships are closely linked together.
  28. Control of Endocrine System
    • Hypothalamus releases or inhibits hormones
    • - negative feeback
  29. Pituitary Gland (Hypohysis) location
    Sella turcica of sphenoid bone
  30. 2 lobes of pituitary gland
    • Anterior Lobe - Adenohypophisis
    • Posterior Lobe - Neurohypophisis
  31. 8 hormones of the Adenohypohesis
    • anterior lobe of pituitary gland
    • FLITAGPM
    • 3 Gonadotropins (stimulates gonads)
    • 1. FSH - Follicle stimulating hormone
    • 2. LH - Luteinizing horomone
    • 3. ICSH - Interstitial cell stimulating horomone

    • other hormones
    • 4. TSH - THyroid stimulating hormone
    • 5. ACTH Adrenocorticotropic hormone
    • 6. GH Growth Hormone
    • 7. Prolactin
    • 8. Melanocyte stimulating hormone

    FYI - endorphins are also made by Adenohypophisis
  32. 3 Gonadotropin Hormones
    • (Adenohypohysis)
    • FSH - Follicle stimulating hormone - stimulates follicle development in ovaries, stimulates sperm production and maturation in male.
    • LH- Luteinizing hormone - results in ovulation in female
    • ICSH- Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - results in testosterone production in male
  33. 4. TSH
    Thyroid stimulating hormone
  34. 5. ACTH
    Adrenocorticotropic hormone
  35. 6. GH
    Growth hormone
  36. 7. Prolactin
    initiates and maintains milk production in female
  37. 8. MSH
    Melanocyte stimulating hormone stimulates skin melanin/ pigment
  38. Endorphins
    Peptides made by Adenohypohysis in addition to the hormones that has opiate-like effects
  39. Controls of the Adenohypohisis
    inhibiting/releasing hormones
    • hypothalamus makes hormones both inhibitory and stimulatory
    • GnRH- Gondadotropin releasing hormone
    • TRH - THyrotropin releasing hormone
    • PIF- Prolactin inhibiting factor
    • CRF - Corticotropin releasing factor
    • Somatostatin - Growth hormone inhibiting hormone
  40. Neurohypohysis
    2 hormones & I_______

    posterior lobe of pituitary gland

    • Infundibulum
    • Antidiuretic hormone
    • Oxytocin
  41. Infundibulum
    hypothalamic - hypophyseal tract
  42. ADH
    • neurohypophysis only stores hormones - hypothalamus makes them
    • Antidiuretic hormone - causes water reabsorption from kidney to bloodstream
  43. Oxytocin
    • neurohypophysis only stores hormones - hypothalamus makes them
    • Uterine contractions for childbirth and milk letdown
  44. Thyroid Gland LOCATION
    • inferior larynx/ superios trachea
  45. Thyroid Gland histology
    • follicle cells (bag/sac), colloid
    • think cobblestone walkway
  46. Thyroid hormones
    Name the 2 hormones
    What carrys these hormones?
    What do they regulate?
    What controls/makes the 2 hormones?
    • Iodine - only place iodine is found in the body.
    • 1. T4 (thyroxine) 90%
    • 2. T3 (triiodothyronine) 10%
    • TBG - thyroid binding globulin- Most thyroid hormones (T3 & T4) are carried in plasma bound to TBG

    • Regulates metabolic rate
    • Controls - TSH, TRH, negative feedback
  47. Calcitonin
    • made in the Thyroid gland
    • if blood calcium is too high, thyroid gland releases Calcitonin to decrease Ca & P.
    • Parafollicular = C cells

    * note: too much calcium in blood stream causes tetany - constant muscle contraction (icludes heart and diaphragm) =death
  48. Metabolism
    ALL chemical reactions in body
  49. hyperthyroidism
    hypothyroidism
    • hyperthyroidism - high metabolism, lots of T3, T4
    • hypothyroidism - low metabolism, not enough T3, T4
  50. Parathyroid glands
    1. LOCATION
    2. PTH
    • 1. 4 - embeddd in posterior surface of thyroid gland
    • 2. (=parathormone) function --> increases Ca; decreases P
    • - if blood calcium levels are low, PTH is secreted ( pulls calcium out of the bone)
  51. Adrenal gland
    1. Location
    1. superior to kidney
  52. Adrenal medulla - inner portion
    • a. Chromaffin cells
    • b. Epinephrine 80%, norepinephrine 20%
    • c. action(glucose, ht, blood vessels, blood pressure, airways)
    • d. realease (pregang. neurons, excitement, injury)
  53. Adrenal cortex- outer portion
    a. Mineralocorticoids

    b. Glucocorticoids

    c. Sex hormones
  54. Mineralocorticoids
    • 1. Zona glomerulosa - outermost layer
    • 2. Aldosterone (90%)
    • 3. Na reabsorption, K excretion - in kidneys
    • 4. Release / controls
    • a. renin/angiotensinogen
    • Renin is an enzyme made by the kidneys in response to low blood pressure. It causes inactive angiotensinogen to activate into Angiotensin, which stimulates Aldosterone release
    • b. High K, Low Na
    • c. ACTH, CRH
  55. Glucocorticoids
    • 1. Zona fasciculata - very thick middle layer
    • 2. Conserves & supplements energy
    • 3. Anti-inflammatory
    • 4. Release/controls
    • a. ACTH, CRH
    • b. Stress
  56. Sex hormones
    1. Zona reticularis - innermost layer
  57. PANCREAS location
    behing stomach and along duodenum(first part of small intestine)
  58. Pancreas
    • 2. Exocrine & endocrine
    • 3. Pancreatic islets (of langerhans) - ENDOCRINE portion
    • 4. Insulin ( beta cells, lowers blood glucose)
    • 5. Glucagon (alpha cells, raises blood glucose)
    • 6. Somatostatin (delta cells, inhibits growth hormone release)
    • 7. release/controls
    • a. blood glucose level
    • b. GI hormones - meals/between meals
    • c. ANS
  59. Gonads
    Testes make androgens to be discussed later, Ovaries make estrogens and progesterones to be discussed later.

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