Quarter 4 GI Pathology: Diseases of the stomach

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  1. Hypertrophy of the circular smooth muscle of the pylorus causing narrowing and lengthening of the pyloric channel
    • Pyloric Stenosis (Achalasia of the pylorus)
    • Congenital anomaly
  2. What are the clinical features of pyloric stenosis
    • Projectile vomiting
    • progressive electrolyte and nutritional disturbances
  3. What are the symptoms of dyspepsia
    • Epigastric burning
    • abdominal bloating
    • belching and flatulence
    • nausea
    • halitosis
  4. What are the three most common causes of dyspepsia?
    • Functional dyspepsia (nonulcer) 60%
    • Peptic ulcer disease 15 - 25%
    • Gastroesophageal reflux 5 - 15%
  5. Gastroparesis
    partial paralysis of stomach
  6. tiny collections of inflammatory cells in different parts of the body
  7. gastritis that does not penetrate beyond the muscularis mucosa. may be caused by virus, bacteria, fungi, parasite
    specific gastritis
  8. gastritis caused by helicobacter infection or autoimmune disease
    nonerosive, nonspecific
  9. gastritis caused by drugs, trauma, physical agents, ischemia, stress
    erosive, hemmorraghic, acute gastritis
  10. what are the five main sites for peptic ulcers to develope
    • stomach (gastric ulcer)
    • 1st part duodenum (duodenal ulcer)
    • Esophagus 
    • Jejunal (gastroenterostomy)
    • Meckel's diverticulum
  11. glucagon stimulates acid producing cells
    Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
  12. what are the three common factors that induce peptic ulcers
    • hyperacidity
    • infection
    • abnormal vagal impulses
  13. what type of ulcer is common in people with hyperacidity
  14. what bacteria is always found in gastric ulcer formation
    H. Pylori infection
  15. What are the commonest sites of peptic ulcer perforation
    anterior wall of stomach and duodenum
  16. gradual contraction of the fibrous base of the ulcer causing pyloric stenosis with dilatation of the stomach or hour-glass stomach
    Cicatricial contraction
  17. what is H2 blocker (ranitidine) used for
    anti-secretory for gastric acid
  18. large soft fungating mass projects into lumen and is associated with ulceration, hemorrhage, and infections
    Polypoid or fungating carcinoma
  19. linitis plastica
    leather bottle stomach
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Quarter 4 GI Pathology: Diseases of the stomach
2013-08-29 02:58:01

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