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Describe anatomical position, including the position of the body, feet, hands, face and toes
- 1) upright
- 2) feet apart slightly
- 3) hands at side, palms facing forward, fingers extended
- 4) face forward
- 5) toes pointed forward
Give the three types of planes used to divide the body and define each plane
1) sagittal plane: divides body into left and right components, oriented along the longitudinal axis
2) coronal plane: divides body into anterior and posterior components, also oriented along the long axis of the body, perpendicular to the sagittal plane
3) transverse plane: divides body into superior and inferior components, oriented perpendicular to the coronal and sagittal planes
How do sagittal planes divide the body?
Into left and right components
How do the coronal planes divide the body?
into anterior and posterior components
How do transverse planes divide the body?
Into superior and inferior portions
What is the mid-sagittal plane?
The sagittal plane that divides the body down the midline
Using the terms "medial" and "lateral" describe the position of the 5th manual digit relative to the 1st digit.
The 5th digit is medial to the 1st digit.
Using the terms "medial" and "lateral" describe the position of the ears relative to the nose.
The ears are lateral to the nose.
Using the terms "proximal" and "distal" describe the position of the knee relative to the hip joint.
The knee is distal to the hip joint.
Describe the position of the pollical distal phalanx relative to the elbow.
The pollical distal phalanx is distal to the elbow.
Using the terms "proximal" and "distal" describe the position of the shoulder relative to the wrist.
The shoulder is proximal to the wrist.
Using the terms "superficial" and "deep" describe the position of spongy bone to cortical bone.
Spongy bone is deep to cortical bone.
What are the components of the axial skeleton?
The skull, the vertebral column, the ribs and the sternum.
What are the components of the appendicular skeleton?
The upper and lower limbs, including the pelvis and the shoulder girdle.
What are the functions of bones?
- 1) they are the primary support structure for the body
- 2) they protect vital organs
- 3) they act as reservoirs for calcium and phosphorus
- 4) they serve as muscle attachment sites
Give the general description of long bones.
Bones which are longer than they are wide.
Give examples of long bones.
- 1) phalanges
- 2) metacarpals
- 3) metatarsals
- 4) femur
- 5) radius
What is the bone classification of the clavicle?
What is unique about the clavicle among long bones?
- 1) it is the only long bone that runs horizontally
- 2) it frequently does not have a medullary cavity
Describe short bones.
Bones which are as wide as they are long.
Provide examples of short bones.
Where are sesamoid bones formed?
Entirely within tendons.
What are the functions of sesamoid bones?
They protect the tendon and they increase its mechanical advantage.
What are the functions of cartilage?
- 1) provide secondary support to the skeleton
- 2) create smooth articular surfaces at the joints
- 3) facilitate the growth of long bones
True or false? Elastic cartilage covers articular surface areas.
FALSE. Hyaline (and sometimes fibrocartilage) covers articular surface areas.
True or false: bone is a dense connective tissue proper.
FALSE. Bone is a supporting connective tissue
List the tree types of cartilage.
- 1) hyaline
- 2) elastic
- 3) fibrocartilage
List the locations where hyaline cartilage is found in the body.
- 1) joint articular surfaces
- 2) cartilages of the trachea, nose and septum
- 3) costal cartilages
True or false: compact bone is best able to resist compressive and tensile forces
Describe synovial fluid.
Synovial fluid is found in the joint capsule of synovial joints. It is a highly viscous substance which facilitates the movement of the articulating surfaces. It also provides nutrients to articular cartilage. The synovial membrane produces synovial fluid.
True or false: approximately 1/3 of bone matrix is made of reticular fibers
FALSE. Approximately 1/3 of the matrix is made of collagen fibers.
Where are osteons found?
In compact bone.
Which structures support the role of synovial fluid?
menisci, disks, bursae, synovial sheaths, hyaline cartilage and fat pads.
Where are osteocytes located?
True or false: lacunae directly connect to central canals
FALSE. Canaliculi connect lacunae and central canals.
Provide two places where symphyses are found in the body.
- 1) pubic smphysis
- 2) intervetebral discs
- 3) mandibular symphysis
Define the term fossa and give one example of a fossa in the body.
Fossa: a depression, generally the location of an articulation, bone, or muscle. Examples include the temporalis fossa, the mandibular fossa, the olecranon fossa, the radial fossa...
Is skeletal muscle voluntary or involuntary?
True or false: the occipital lobes sit on (or deep to) the frontal bone.
FALSE. They sit on the occipital bone.
True or false: the mental foramen is the attachment site for muscles that move the jaw.
FALSE. A foramen is a hole, generally in a bone, that allows passage of arteries, nerves and/or veins.
What type of joint allows a large range of motion?
A synovial joint.
Where are lumbar vertebrae located and how are the distinct from other vertebrae?
They are located directly inferior to the thoracic vertebrae and superior to the sacrum. They are distinguished by their large size, particularly the vertebral bodies.
What accessory structure deepens the hip and shoulder joint sockets?
A labrum (a ring of fibrocartilage)
True or false and how do you know?
The wrist joint is a symphysis
FALSE. Symphyses are found only in the midline of the body. Additionally, they are solid joints, which means that they permit a relatively small amount of movement.
True or false: ligaments function to connect muscle to bones.
FALSE. Ligaments connect bone to bone, bone to cartilage, or cartilage to cartilage. Tendons connect bone to muscle.