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What does Positivism mean
To apply the scientific method to the social world.
Who is credited as the founder of Sociology
What does sociology mean
The study of society
From Greek logos, "study of," and the Latin socius, "companion," or "being with others"
According to the founder, what was the purpose of sociology
to discover social principles and apply them to social reform
What is Social Darwinism
Coined by Spencer, its the "survival of the fittest." Societies are evolving from barbaric to civilized forms, thus as generations pass, the "fittest" would survive while the less capable die out
What are the two social classes according to Karl Marx
The bourgeoisie aka capitalist (they own everything) and the proletariat aka exploited workers
Facts About Karl Marx/Marxism
Marxism is NOT the same as communism. Marx proposed revolution as the way for workers to gain control of society. Communism is only a later application of Marx's ideas
What are the two goals Durkheim set for himself concerning Sociology (according to pg 7)
- Goal 1: get sociology recognized as a separate academic discipline
- Goal 2: show how social forces affect people's behaviour
Did Durkheim achieve Goal 1, if so when, if not why not
Yes, in 1887 when the University of Bordeaux awarded him the world's first academic appointment in sociology
How did Durkheim achieve Goal 2
He conducted rigorous research by comparing suicide rates within different groups. Example: males, Protestants, and unmarried are more likely to commit suicide than females, Catholics/Jews, and married
What is social integration
the degree to which people are tied to their social groups
What does patterns of behavior mean
recurring characteristics or events
What did Max Weber use to trace the causes of social change and the effects of social groups on people's orientations to life
cross-cultural and historical materials
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