Anatomy 1 Lecture 5 - Pectoral region, Axilla, Brachial Plexus
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Pectoralis Major OINA
- O: Clavicular head: Anterior half of the medial aspect of the clavicle. Sternal Costal head: Sternum, superior sic costal cartilages, aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle.
- I: Lateral lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus
- N: Lateral and medial (shared with pec minor) pectoral n.
- A: Adducts and medially rotates the humerus
Pectoralis Minor OINA
- O: Ribs 3-5 near the costal caritlages
- I: The coracoid process of the scapula
- N: Medial pactoral n.
- A: Stabilizes scaupla against thoracic wall.
- O: Rib 1, and costal cartilage
- I: Inferior surface of the middle third of the clavicle
- N: Subclavius n.
- A: Anchors and depresses the clavicle
Serratus Anterior OINA
- O: Upper nine ribs
- I: Anterior surface medial border of the scapula
- N: Long thoracis n.
- A: Protracts and upwardly rotates the scapula
What is the function of the axilla?
Provides passage way for the large nerves and vessels of the arm.
What forms the apex of the axilla?
The clavicle, superior border of the scapula and first rib. They form an opening for the nerves and vessels to pass through.
What forms the anterior wall of the axilla?
Pectorails Major and minor
What forms the posterior wall of the axilla?
Subscapularis, Teres major, Latissumus dorsi
What forms the medial border of the axilla?
What forms the lateral wall of the axilla?
Humerus, coracobrachiallis, long head of the biceps brachii
What forms the base of the axilla?
The axillary fascia
What passes through the axilla?
The axillary vessels and their branches. Parts of the brachial plexus and their branches.
What is the brachial plexus?
It is the nerves that combine to innervate the shoulder and upper extremity.
What forms the brachial plexus?
The ventral primary rami of C5-T1
What are the three trunks and which ventral rami contribute to them?
- Upper: C5 and C6
- Middle: C7
- Lower: C8 and T1
How are the trunks of the brachial plexus divided?
They all have anterior and posterior divisions.
What are the 3 cords of the brachial plexus?
- Lateral: Anterior division of upper trunk and middle trunk
- Posterior: All three posterior divisions
- Medial: Anterior from the lower trunk
Draw the brachial plexus and label which muscles the brached innervate.
What arterter passes trough the deltopectoral opening along with the cephalic v?
The poctoral branch of the thoraco-acromial a. The lateral pectoral nerve also passes through this opening.
What is the name of the membrane that seperates the pectoralis major and minor?
The clavipectoral fascia.
To which side of the intertubercular groove does the petoralis major attach?
It attaches to the lateral side. The Teres Major and Latissimus Dorsi attach to the inner crest.
Name the branches of the axillary artery in descending, and their branches if they have any.
- Axillary a.
- -Superior Thoracic a
- -Thoracoacromial a.
- -Pectoral branch
- -Deltoid branch
- -Clavicular branch
- -Acromial branch
- -Lateral Thoracic branch
- -Subscapular branch
- -Circumflex scapular branch (Triangluar space, anestomoses with the suprascapular a.)
- -Thoracodorsal a.
- -Posterior Circumflex humeral a. (Quadrangular space)
- -Anterior circumflex humeral a.
- -Profunda brachii a. (traiangular interval)
What does the superior thoracic a. supply?
The first 2 intercostal spaces
Name the branches of the thoracoacromial a.
- Deltoid a.
- Pectoral a.
- Clavicle a.
- Acromial a.
What does the lateral thoracic a. supply?
The anterolateral wall of the thorax.
What are the branches of the subscapular a. and what do they supply?
- The circumflex dorsal a. (anastomoses with the suprascapular a. in the infraspinatus fossa)
- Thoracodorsal a. (supplies the latissimus dorsi)
When does the axillary a. become the brachial a.?
When it passes throught the teres major.
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