Module 1

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jskunz
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231756
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Module 1
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2013-09-17 16:32:36
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Anatomy Phys
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Mod 1
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  1. Definition of Anatomy
    • Study of structure
    • "cutting backwards", putting things together from slices
  2. Definition of physiology
    • Study of function
    • includes homeostasis, which is the word used in class to refer to the systems that keep the body in balance
  3. Gross Anatomy
    Structure which can be viewed without microscope
  4. Histology
    microscopic structure of tissue
  5. Cell biology
    Cell structure and function
  6. Embryology
    • first 8 weeks of development
    • related to developmental anatomy
  7. developmental biology
    all stages of development
  8. Radiographic anatomy
    Body structures visualized by Xray, CT or MRI
  9. Surface anatomy
    surface markings of the body
  10. regional anatomy
    specific regions of the body
  11. systemic anatomy
    structure of specific systems
  12. Pathologic anatomy
    structural changes with disease
  13. Neurophysiology
    Functional properties of nerve cells
  14. Renal physiology
    Functions of Kidneys
  15. Endocrinology
    Hormones and how they control body functions
  16. exercise physiology
    changes in cell and organ functions as a result of muscular activity
  17. respiratory physiology
    functions of the air passageways and lungs
  18. Immunology
    How the body defends itself against disease-causing agents
  19. cardiovascular physiology
    function of the heart and blood vessels
  20. Pathophysiology
    Functional changes associated with disease and aging
  21. Levels of organization of the human body
    • From smallest to largest:
    • Chemical (atoms & molecular) 
    • cellular (ex: smooth muscle cell)
    • tissue (ex: smooth muscle tissue)
    • organ: (stomach)
    • system: (digestive stystem)
    • organismal: YOU (as a whole person)
  22. atoms
    smallest units of matter (periodic table)
  23. molecules
    two or more atoms joined together
  24. 11 organ systems
    • Integumentary System
    • Skeletal
    • Muscular
    • Nervous
    • Endocrine
    • Cardiovascular
    • Lymphatic & Immune
    • Respiratory
    • Digestive
    • Urinary
    • Reproducative
  25. Functions of Integumentary system
    • Skin ~ protects the body
    • helps regulate body temp.
    • eliminates some wastes
    • helps make vit. D
    • detects sensations such as touch
  26. Functions of skeletal system
    • supports and protects the body
    • provides a surface area for muscle attachments
    • aids body movements
    • houses cells that produce blood
  27. functions of muscular system
    • produces body movements, such as walking
    • stabilizes body position
  28. functions of nervous system
    • generates action potentials (nerve impulses) to regulate body activities
    • detects changes in the body's internal and external environments
    • interprets the changes, and responds by causing muscular contractions or glandular secretions
  29. functions of the endocrine system
    regulates body activities by releasing hormones, which are chemical messengers transported in blood from an endocrine gland or tissue to a target organ
  30. Functions of the cardiovascular system
    • heart pumps blood through blood vessels
    • blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and carbon dioxide and wastes away from cells
    • helps regulate acid-base balance, temperature and water content of body fluids
    • blood components help defend against disease and repair damaged blood vessels
  31. functions of lymphatic system
    • returns proteins and fluid to blood
    • carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood
    • includes structures where lymphocytes that protect against disease-causing microbes mature and proliferate
  32. Functions of the respiratory system
    • transfers oxygen from inhaled air to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to exhaled air
    • helps regulate acid-base balance of body fluids
    • air flowing out of lungs through vocal cords produces sounds
  33. functions of digestive system
    • achieves physical and chemical breakdown of food
    • absorbs nutrients
    • eliminates solid wastes
  34. functions of urinary system
    • produces, stores, and eliminates urine
    • eliminates wates and regulates volume and chemical composition of blood
    • helps maintain the acid-base balance of body fluids
    • maintains body's mineral balance
    • helps regulate production of red blood cells
  35. functions of reproductive system
    • gonads produce gametes (sperm or oocytes) that unite to form a new organism
    • gonads also release hormones that regulate reproduction and other body processes
    • associated organs transport and store gametes
    • only system completely different btwn sexes, differences in two systems called primary sexual characteristics
  36. two main body cavities
    • dorsal = cranial and vertebral cavity
    • Ventral = thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity
  37. cranial cavity
    • within dorsal cavity
    • formed by cranial bones and contains brain
  38. vertebral cavity
    • within dorsal cavity
    • formed by vertebral column and contains spinal cord and the beginnings of spinal nerves
  39. thoracic cavity
    • Is chest cavity, superior portion of ventral cavity
    • contains pleural cavity, pericardial cavity, and mediastinum
  40. pleural cavity
    • each surrounds a lung
    • the serous membrane of the pleural cavities is the pleura
  41. pericardial cavity
    • surrounds the heart
    • the serous membrane of the pericardial cavity is the pericardium
  42. mediastinum
    • central portion of thoracic cavity btwn the lungs
    • extends from sternum to vertebral column and from neck to diaphragm
    • contains heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and several large blood vessels
  43. what separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity?
    the diaphragm
  44. Abdominopelvic cavity
    • inferior portion of ventral body cavity
    • subdivided into abdominal and pelvic cavities
  45. abdominal cavity
    • contains stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of large intestine
    • the serous membrane of the abdominal cavity is the peritoneum
  46. pelvic cavity
    contains urinary bladder, portions of large intestine, and internal organs of reproduction
  47. greater omentum
    sheet of fat, connective tissue in front of abdominal organs
  48. cecum
    small pouch, where large and small intestine intersect
  49. organs in right upper quadrant
    RUQ: liver
  50. organs in left upper quadrant
    LUQ: spleen, left kidney
  51. organs in right lower quadrant
    cecum, appendix
  52. organs in left lower quadrant
    left overary
  53. Top regions of 9 abdominopelvic regions
    • Right hypochondriac region (hypochondriac=under ribs)
    • Epigastric region (on top of stomach)
    • Left hypochondriac region (again, under ribs)
  54. middle regions of 9 abdominopelvic regions
    • Right lumbar region (lumbar = lower back)
    • Umbilical region - centered on umbilicus
    • left lumbar region
  55. bottom regions of 9 abdominopelvic regions
    • right inguinal region - (inguinal = groin) also called right iliac region
    • hypogastric region - (hypogastric = below stomach) also called pubic region
    • left inguinal region - (also called left iliac region)
  56. bones in axial skeleton
    skull, vertebral column, sternum, ribs
  57. bones in appendicular skeleton
    • arm: scapula, clavicle humerus, and down
    • leg: pelvis, femur and down
  58. homeostasis
    the condition of equilibrium in the body's internal environment due to the constant interaction of the body's many regulatory processes
  59. feedback system
    also called feedback loop; a cycle of events in which the status of a body condition is monitored, evaluated, changed, remonitored, reevaluated, and so on.
  60. components of homeostatic feedback lope
    • receptor: monitors controlled condition, sends input to control center
    • control center: receives input and provides output
    • effectors: bring about a change in controlled condition
  61. negative feedback loop
    • reverses a change in a controlled condition
    • actions stops automatically when setpoint is reached
    • regulate conditions that remain fairly stable over long periods
    • Ex: blood pressure, body temp, electrolyte balance, etc
  62. positive feedback loop
    • strengthen or reinforce a change
    • action continues until it is interrupted
    • reinforces conditions that do not happen very often
    • Ex: childbirth, blood clotting
  63. Differences between Signs and Symptoms
    • Signs are what we can see: swelling, rashes, pus, fever
    • Symptoms are what the patient tells us: nausea, pain, headache...
  64. disease
    term for an illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms which usually has a cure
  65. Syndrome
    • a set of signs/symptoms that often occur together
    • we usually don't understand the relationship btwn the s/s & disorder
    • no cure
  66. internal sources of disease
    occurs because of an imbalance of homeostasis from some sort of internal or genetically programmed abnormality. Ex: aging and gene mutations
  67. Auto-immune diseases
    something goes wrong with the homeostatic loop, part of body becomes altered, immune system recognizes alteration as "non-self" and attacks when it shouldn't
  68. external sources of disease
    • disruptions in homeostasis by outside agents
    • ex: infectious disease
  69. Modes of disease transmition
    • Contact transmission: direct(touching), indirect (shared objects), or droplet
    • Common vehicle transmission: contaminated food, water, blood
    • airborne transmission: only applies to pathogens, which stay alive in droplets or dust traveling
  70. fomites
    • shared objects
    • Ex: doorhandles, desks, etc
  71. vector transmission
    if a disease that is transmitted by a "third party" (by an insect bite, bat, etc), then the animal is called a vector

    people can be vectors, if they transmit the disease but do not appear to be sick, they are called carriers
  72. sporadic infections
    occur in individuals here and there, with no evidence of widespread incidence in a population
  73. endemic infections
    more common in one geographic area than elsewhere, but occur at low to moderate levels in that area
  74. epidemic infections
    occur at a higher than normal level in a population
  75. pandemic infection
    • occur worldwide
    • ex: HIV
  76. epidemiology
    the study of spread of disease
  77. immunocompromised
    when a disease lowers the body's ability to fight off invading infectious illness
  78. nosocomial
    an infectious disease acquired in a hospital setting
  79. exogenous
    nosocomial infection that came from external environment
  80. endogenous
    nosocomial infection which arise from organisms already present in or on the patient
  81. (prefix) ~ tera-
    • 1012   =   1,000,000,000,000
    • Symbol : T
  82. (prefix) ~ giga-
    • 109 = 1,000,000,000
    • symbol: G
  83. (prefix) ~ mega-
    • 106 = 1,000,000
    • symbol: M
  84. (prefix)~ kilo-
    • 103 = 1,000
    • symbol: k
  85. (prefix) ~ hecto-
    • 102 = 100
    • symbol: h
  86. (prefix) ~ deca-
    • 101 = 10
    • symbol: da
  87. (prefix) ~ deci-
    • 10-1 = 0.1
    • symbol: c
  88. (prefix) centi-
    • 10-2 = .01
    • symbol: c
  89. (prefix) ~ milli-
    • 10-3 = .001
    • symbol: m
  90. (prefix) ~ micro-
    • 10-6 = .000,001
    • symbol: μ
  91. (prefix) nano-
    • 10-9 = .000,000,001
    • symbol: n
  92. (prefix) ~ pico-
    • 10-12 = .000,000,000,001
    • symbol: p
  93. convert inches into centimeters
    1 inch = 2.54 centimeters
  94. convert miles into kilometers
    1 mile = 1.61 kilometers
  95. convert ounces to grams
    1 ounce = 28.35 grams
  96. convert pounds to kilograms
    1 pound = .45 kilograms
  97. convert fluid ounces to mililiters
    1 fluid ounce = 29.57 mililiters
  98. convert kilograms to pounds
    1 kilogram = 2.21 pounds
  99. basic 3 rules for Significant Figures
    • 1. Non-zero digits are always significant (2.34, 45.6, 123,456)
    • 2. Leading zeros are never significant. (0.1, 0.211, 0.0033, 0.0004)
    • 3. Confined zeros are always significant (245,001, 45,067, 87,002)

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