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Author:
sara360
ID:
231781
Filename:
path
Updated:
2013-08-28 19:15:35
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Description:
pathology
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  1. Continuously dividing tissues:

    cells proliferate throughout life.

    mature cells are derived from adult stem
    cells
    • Øsurface epithelia - stratified squamous
    • epithelia of the skin, oral cavity, vagina, and cervix

    • Øthe lining mucosa of all the excretory
    • ducts of the glands of the body (e.g., salivary glands, pancreas, biliary
    • tract)

    • Øthe columnar epithelium of the GI tract
    • and uterus

    • Ø the transitional epithelium of the
    • urinary tract, and

    • Ø cells of the bone marrow and
    • hematopoietic tissues
  2. Quiescent tissues
    Ølow level of replication

    • Øcan undergo rapid division in response to
    • stimuli

    Examples:

    Øparenchymal cells of liver, kidneys, and pancreas

    Ø mesenchymal cells - fibroblasts and smooth muscle

    Øvascular endothelial cells

    Ølymphocytes and other leukocytes
  3. vNondividing tissues:
    • Øcontain cells that have left the cell
    • cycle

    • Øcannot undergo mitotic division in
    • postnatal life

    Examples:

    Øneurons

    • Øskeletal 
    • muscle cells

    Øcardiac muscle cells
  4. Maintenance of stem cells
    (a) obligatory asymmetric replication

    (b) stochastic differentiation
  5. Mechanisms that maintain pluripotency of ES cells?
    • *Expression of four transcription factors,
    • Oct3/4,
    • Sox2, c-myc,
    • and Klf4

    • *homeobox protein Nanog (named after Tir na n'Og, the
    • Celtic land of the ever-young) acts to prevent differentiation.
  6. where to get Hematopoietic
    stem cells:
    ¥Sources for harvesting:

    -bone marrow

    - from umbilical cord blood

    • - peripheral blood of individuals
    • receiving cytokines such as GM-CSF
  7. Location of the stem cells in Skin:
    ühair follicle bulge

    • ü interfollicular
    • areas of the surface epidermis

    -sebaceous glands

    • -contribute to the replenishment of
    • surface epidermal cells after skin wounding.








    • *stimulatory signals -Wnt
    • pathway

    • üinhibition of signaling - bone
    • morphogenetic protein (BMP) system.
  8. -Skeletal Muscle:
    qStem cells are called satellite cells

    • qLocation: beneath
    • the myocyte
    • basal lamina

    • qRole: growth and regeneration of injured
    • skeletal muscle

    • qStimulation of  satellite cells: Active Notch signaling, triggered by
    • up-regulation of delta-like (Dll) ligands
  9. qPhases of the normal cell cycle:
    • üG0 –
    • quiescent cells

    üG1 - presynthetic

    üG2 - premitotic

    üS – DNA synthesis

    • üM 
    • - mitotic
  10. G1/S transition
    üRate limiting step for replication

    • ümonitors the integrity of DNA before
    • replication

    • ütightly regulated by proteins called cyclins and
    • enzymes called cyclin-dependent
    • kinases
    • (CDKs)

    üCDK inhibitors
  11. vEpidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and
    Transforming Growth Factor α (TGF-α):
    • ¥family of 4 membrane receptors with
    • intrinsic tyrosine kinase
    • activity

    • ¥best-characterized EGFR  - 
    • referred to as EGFR1, ERB B1, or EGFR

    • ¥responds to EGF, TGF-α, and other ligands of
    • the EGF family, such as HB-EGF (heparin-binding EGF) and
    • amphiregulin

    • ¥EGFR1 mutations and
    • amplification  - cancers of the lung,
    • head and neck, and breast, glioblastomas,
    • and other cancers

    • ¥ERB B2 receptor (also
    • known as HER-2 or
    • HER2/Neu) - overexpressed in a
    • subset of breast cancers and is an important therapeutic target








    §belong to the EGF family

    §common receptor  - EGFR

    • §mitogenic for a variety of epithelial cells, hepatocytes, and
    • fibroblasts

    • § In healing wounds - produced by keratinocytes,
    • macrophages, and other inflammatory cells that migrate into the area
  12. Epidermal growth factor receptor:
    • ¥family of 4 membrane receptors with
    • intrinsic tyrosine kinase
    • activity

    • ¥best-characterized EGFR  - 
    • referred to as EGFR1, ERB B1, or EGFR

    • ¥responds to EGF, TGF-α, and other ligands of
    • the EGF family, such as HB-EGF (heparin-binding EGF) and
    • amphiregulin

    • -EGFR1 mutations and
    • amplification  - cancers of the lung,
    • head and neck, and breast, glioblastomas,
    • and other cancers

    • -ERB B2 receptor (also
    • known as HER-2 or
    • HER2/Neu) - overexpressed in a
    • subset of breast cancers and is an important therapeutic target

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