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Root & rebound: In tadasana, when you root down the four corners of your feet, what is rebounding?
Lift your ankles to protect your knees
What is avidya?
What is a complementary action?
A pair of actions performed simultaneously which help each other move the body in the same direction
pleasure; "sweet"; comfort
What is a simple action?
An action that can be safely emphasized without having to instruct an opposing action
List two kleshas in sanskrit and their English translation:
- ego = asmita
- ignorance = avidya
- aversion = dvesha
- clinging to life / fear = Abhinivesha
- attachment = raga
What poses would show whether your students are ready for sirsasana (and what are you specifically looking for)?
- down dog (strength in upper body--not collapsing the shoulders or rounding thoracic spine)
- utthita hastasana (if their don't have the shoulder mobility to raise arms straight above head)
Name the first two sutras in English/sanskrit:
- Now it's time to practice yoga.
- Yoga is the practice of calming the fluctuations of the mind.
List the three planes of anatomical alignment:
sagittal, coronal, transverse
What is the root cause of suffering?
avidya (ignorance) is the root cause of suffering
In ardha chandrasana, what is the position of the pelvis in the sagittal plane?
In the sagittal (anterior/posterior) plane, the pelvis is neutral.
True or false: om is divided into four stages?
True: a, u, m, silence
What is a preparatory pose?
A pose that prepares students for later poses; a position that enables you to practice elements of later poses
Which of the following is least appropriate for a beginner?
C. urdhva hastasana
D. virabhdrasana 2
E. eka pada apanasana
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
Name three preparatory poses for urdhva dhanurasana:
- urdhva mukha svanasana
- low bhujangasana
Of the following what is the most accessible way to start a beginning level class?
B. child's pose
D. ado mukha svanasana
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
Name two counter poses for urdhva dhanurasana:
- paschimottanasana (seated forward bend)
- supta pada gusthasana
What is a counter pose?
A pose that moves the body in the opposite direction of a previous pose.
True or false: deep twists are beneficial for pregnant women in their third trimester.
False. Deep twists are not beneficial for pregnant women in their third trimester.
How would you position yourself at the wall to help a student with a handstand?
Place back and hips against the wall, knees bent, hold student's hips.
True/False: A restorative sequence should consist solely of forward bending postures.
In the YogaWorks method, there are two types of standing poses (external, neutral). When sequencing, which would you place first?
Externally rotated poses are easier and more stable, therefore they should come first in a sequence.
When practicing ujayi pranayama, the breath should make a loud sound audible to anyone in the room, true or false?
In parsvotanasana, what muscle group in the lower body needs to be warmed up first?
Give an example of a hinge joint and its plane(s) of movement
- (sagittal plane, flex and extend)
The quadriceps ______ the leg at the knee.
The hamstrings _____ the leg at the knee.
Name a ball and socket joint and its plane(s) of movement.
- (circumduction--all three planes, sagittal, coronal, transverse)
What is the foundation of sirsasana?
clasped hands and elbows shoulder width apart, placed on the floor with the outer edges of the hand (pinkie side) on the floor, and the crown of the head.
Name the movements in each plane.
- sagittal: flex and extend
- coronal: adduction and abduction
- transverse: rotation
Name four benefits of salamba sarvangasana:
- better circulation of blood and lymph
- calms the mind
- aids digestion
- opens upper back and shoulders
- strengthens back and hamstrings
In virabhadrasana 1, we work the pelvis toward a neutral position in the transverse plane but people can never truly get neutral. Name two reasons why.
- tight hip flexors
- balance requires the back foot to be angled out, which puts the leg in external rotation to protect knee
What are the risk factors of prasarita padottanasana:
- knees: avoid hyperextension
- lower back: avoid rounding
- outer ankles: avoid "puffing out"
Define a strain:
a tear in the muscle
Define a sprain:
an overstretched ligament or tendon
inflammation of the tendon
What muscle group in the lower body needs to be warmed up and prepared in virabhadrasana 1:
*In virabhadrasana 1, the action of the back thigh at the hip joint is internal rotation but the position of the back thigh at the hip joint is...
- position: externally rotated
- (we instruct the action: rotate the thigh in, but it's not possible to do fully so the leg position is external rotation)
In Sanskrit and in English, give the eight limbs of ashtanga yoga:
- yama - ethics
- niyama - discipline
- asana - postures
- pranayama - breath control
- pratyahara - detachment
- dharana - concentration
- dhyana - meditation
- samadhi - transcendence
Define the gunas:
- Gunas are tangible, they are qualities of nature (prakriti).
- satvas, rajas, tamas
- balance, activity, inertia
What do the triceps do to the forearms at the elbow?
The triceps extend the forearm at the elbow.
What is the universal therapeutic advice you might give a student with new, acute symptoms?
RICE: rest, ice, compress, elevate
Four contraindications for inversions:
- neck injury (in sirsasana)
The gunas are qualities of...
b. prakriti (nature)
Define counter action:
a pair of actions that when performed together, which act in opposite directions, create stability, space, and lessen risk factors. Prevents overdoing a given action.
In the sutras, practicing earnestly and diligently while remaining unattached to the fruits of our action. What are these two concepts called?
In urdhva dhanurasana, what is a transitional pose and give an example?
A transitional pose moves you from one pose to another; a posture that enables a shift to a new pose; apanasana
In urdhva dhanurasana, what is a neutralizing pose and give an example?
A pose that neutralizes the effects of a previous pose; a twist like bharadvajasana
What are the three platforms, what do they protect, and what three actions do you take to protect?
The three platforms: feet, hips, and shoulder girdle protect the knees, low back, and neck when you align, stabilize, and elongate.
Position versus action: what is the difference?
Position indicates what the body is actually doing, action is the direction the body is trying to achieve (in vira 1, the back leg position is externally rotated though the action is to internally rotate)
In adho mukha svanasana and urdhva hastasana, what misalignments would indicate that a student is not ready for sirsasana?
- shoulders too tense to lower blades down
- shoulders remain up around ears
- back is rounded, tight
- can't fully lift arms above head without flaring ribs
- not strong enough to hold down-dog for 5 breaths
- can't move thoracic in
benefits of inversions(name four or five)
- * can be calming or invigorating depending on ability, time, attention, breath, and placement (in sequence)
- * good for circulation
- * assists movement of lymph
- * works with gravity for venous return
- * reduces any swelling in legs and/or feet
- * reduces stress on spinal column
- * positive impact on brain function
- * benefits respiration
- * alters perspective
- * strengthen upper body
- * enhance body awareness
- * improve coordination and balance
- * build confidence
- * build mindfulness/concentration
common misalignments in inversions (name four or five)
- * hands turn in or out (can strain wrists, elbows, shoulders
- * elbows wider than shoulders (can strain wrists, elbows, shoulders)
- * chin tucked or lifte in headstand (cervical spine misalignment can hurt neck)
- * upper back rounding and/or chin tucking in handstand (creates pressure/compression in neck)
- * splayed hands and feet
- * in shoulder stand, if chin drops into chest and chest collapses (puts pressure on cervial spine, narrows chest so breathing becomes difficult)
- * "banana shape" / arching like a bow (strain in low back and shoulders)
contraindications for inversions (name four or five)
- eye problems
- history of stroke
- high blood pressure
- wrist, shoulder, and/or neck problems (neck if weight is on head)
- pregnancy (case by case basis)
sequencing... which options are better?
a. easier to harder
b. simple to complex
c. harder to easier
d. complex to simple
e. external to neutral
f. neutral to external
sequencing goes from easier to harder, simple to more complex; least risky to most challenging; eternal to neutral
Define component parts:
Actions or areas that you want to focus on with preparatory poses before practicing a more difficult pose; to warm up or educate the body in preparation for later work
The first three sutras are:
- 1. I will now explain the practice of yoga (atha yoganusasanam)
- 2. Yoga is the practice of calming the fluctuations in your mind (yogas citta vrtti nirodhah
- 3. Yoga's goal is to reveal your true self (tada drastuh svarupe vasthanam)
repetitive stress injury, an injury that develops over time
What are some hands-on adjustments for adho mukha svanasana?
- lift pelvis from behind (after letting student know that you're there)
- squeeze the triceps in
- press heels down while drawing the shins back
What poses aren't recommended for pregnant women?
- belly poses
- back or right-side lying poses
- deep backbends
- extreme abs
- deep squats
- semi-reclined positions
- holding poses longer than 5-10 breaths
- deep twists
- deep forward bends or hip openers
- anything overheating
What is prakriti?
Nature or matter; stuff
What is purusha?
What are the gunas?
- Sattva (illumination)
- Rajas (passion)
- Tamas (lethargy; inertia)
What is sutra 1.12?
abhyasa vairagyabhyam tannirodhah (These mental modifications are restrained by practice and non-attachment)
What are vrttis?
mental modifications, the whirlpool of your thoughts
What is abhyasa? What is vairagya?
- abhyasa = practice
- vairagya = non-attachment
What was written in the Vedic Period?
What was written in the pre-classical period?
What is sukha?
happiness or pleasure
What was written in the Brahmanical age?
the Brahamanas and the Aranyakas
The Bhagavad Gita was written around...
500 BCE, deals with idea that spritual and worldly life are not exclusive
What are some restorative poses?
- supta baddha konasana
- supta sukhasana
- supta padangusthasana
- child's pose
- viparita karani