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The earth is estimated to be ________ years old
The earliest known humans were _____ and lived in _____.
Paleolithic (stone age) era
- -2.5 billion years ago till 10,000BCE
- humans lived in very small groups of 10-20 and were nomadic
- had the ability to make tools and weapons from stone and the bones of animals they killed
- took shelter in caves and painted on the walls (lions, owls, oxen)
- 500,000 they began to use fire
Historians divide history into three parts:
- Paleolithic (stone age) 2.5 billion years ago to 10,000 BCE
- Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) - from 10,000 to 7,000 BCE
- Neolithic (New stone age) -
- from 10,000 to 7,000 BCE
- the Neolithic Revolution began
- humans domesticated plants and began to shift away from a reliance on hunting large game and foraging
- humans were able to plant and harveest some crops and begin to stay in one place
- improved their tool making techniques
- New stone age
- humans were able to engage in systematic agriculture/tame animals
- became settled and lived in farming villages or towns
- more structured social systemand a higher level of organization
- development of crafts such as pottery
- between 4000 and 3000 BCE writing developed
- the existence of written records marks the end of pre-historical period
The first civilizations emerged in _______ and ______.
Mesopotamia and Egypt
Mesopotamia Fertile Cresent
- -AKA the "Cradle of Civilization"
- - Sumerians and Akkadians created canals, dikes, ditches
- - had enormous labor forces and strong central govt.
- - Sumerians discovered bronze (mixing tin with copper)
- - called the Bronze Age
- - first writing clay and pictographic
- - evolved into "cuneiform" pressing wedge symbols into clay tablets
- - leave a record of business transactions, taxes, and wages
- - understood multiplication and division and had a calendar based on the moons phases
King Sargon I
- led the Akkadians to conquer Sumeria and established an early empire
- Semitic Amorites brought Mesopotamia under one rule, organizing the city-states of Sumer and Akkad
Code of Hammurabi
- - first known written law code
- - applied to all Babylonians
- - Provided for unequal punishment based on rank and class
- - Set minimum wage and limited debt slavery to 3 years
- Jewish Bible
- - God was Yahweh who demanded his followers worship him alone
Egypt Predynastic Period
The approximate date when King Menes united upper Egypt and began creating a kingdom with upper and lower Egypt
- Organized hierarchically with the Pharaoh having power over all society.
- Led to construction of pyramids to preserve the bodies of the Kings
The mighty and predictable Nile river, the significance of the Pharaoh as a unifying leader, and religion all contributed to long stretch of Egyptian power and wealth.
Egypt god Osiris
The annual flooding of the Nile and immortality
- Government was highly centralized with the army and police reporting to the King.
- The empire was divided into provinces each ruled by their own governer.
- Date the beginning of their civilization of the Xia (Hsia) Dynasty.
- Territory was divided into provinces ruled by Cheiftains chosen by the King.
- The King was believed to communicate with Gods.
- Maintained complex tombs and sacrificed people to be buried with the King to assist in the afterlife
- - Overthrew the Shang Dynasty.
- - Concept of Mandate to Heaven.
- - Kings were said to rule because of their talents and ties to the Gods.
- - Mandate could be removed if the King were infit.
- - Manufacturing and trading of silk began. Silk road began
Greek Dark Ages
- Invasions, disorders, and declining populations meant that few records has survived and writing may have disappeared.
- Established a vast overseas trading network and developed several written languages, such as Linear A (symbols stood for entire syllables)
- important in defining for ancient Greek civilizations ideals like:
- - excellence
- - courage
- - honor
- - heroism
- Created by Homer
Seized control of Messenia. Crushed a revolt and enslaved Messenians. To prevent future rebellions, every spartan entered a lifetime military service at the age of 7 called Hoplites.
-Led a reform movement that established the basis of Athens democratic government.
- - began the high point of Greek civilization
- - 250 thousand soldiers returned to Greece. The Persians burned down Athens but their fleet was defeated at the Battle of Salamis and they retreated.
- Alexander the Greats conquest of Thebes, unifying the Greek city/states.
Emphasized a process of questioning or dialogues
Emphasized the individual and his attainment of excellence through rhetoric grammar, music, and math
- - Emphasized ethics
- - created theory of ideas which said, "what we see is a dim shadow of the eternal forms"
- - Criticized Plato saying ideas or forms did not exist outside of things.
- - Contended it was necessary to examine four factors in treating any object (matter, form, cause of origin, and end or purpose)
Greeks and history
- - First to develop the study of history
- - Herodotus was called the father of history and wrote about the Persian war
- - greeks pioneered the study of metaphysics, ethics, politics, rhetoric, cosmology
Alexander the Great
- - Son of Phillip II
- - Established an empire including Syria and Persia and extended to the indus river valley
- - Married a Persian princess so he would not have to depend on the loyalty of his macedonian troops
- - Established 70 cities and a vast trading network
- - After his death his realm was divided among three of his generals
The first Punic war
- - Began when Carthage tried to dominate eastern Sicily
- - After its defeat Carthage relinquished its interest and paid was reparations to Rome
Second Punic War
- - Carthage's general, Hannibal, lead 26000 troops and sixty elephants across the Alps into Italy
- - Defeated the Romans at Cannae
- - Battle of Zama lead to Carthages surrender and Carthage was reduced to a minor state
Third Punic War
- - Macedonia allied with Carthage
- - Macedonias defeat brought greek slaves culture and artifacts into Rome
- - Romans burned Carthage and salted the earth to keep anything from growing again
- - Formed the first triumvirate, which was an informal political alliance between Pompey and Crassus
- - Reformed the tax code and eased burdens on debtors
- - instituted the Julian calendar
- - Senate named him dictator for life
- - Assassinated on the ides of march 44 b.c.e
- - Octavian his nephew came to power after his death
- - Formed the second triumvirate with mark anthony and lepidus to run the republic and punish Caesars assassins
- - Relinquished his powers but the senate gave him a new title, Augustus, who ruled for 44 years
- - Introduced many reforms, new coinage, new tax collection, fire and police protection, and land for settlers in the provinces
The Silver age
- Period in Rome where writing was less optimistic
- - Established three orders of law
- - Civil law, which applied to Romes citizens
- - Law of the people, which merged roman law with the laws of other peoples of the empire
- - Natural law, governed by reason
- - Paul transformed Christianity into a world religion
- - He shifted the focus from the belief in Jesus's imminent return to the concentration on personal salvation
- - Theotosius proclaimed Christianity as the official religion
- Took the mass of written laws, senate decisions, legal commentaries, and edicts. Compiled these all into one system of law.
- - Trade routs linked India and Arabia in the east and the Mediterranean in the west
- - Used for trade
Bubonic Plague (Black Death)
- - A disease affecting the lymph glands, which causes death quickly
- - Most disastrous disease of the middle ages
- - Carried by fleas on rats, the plague was brought from Asia to Europe in 1347 by merchants
- - The disease quickly spread due to no urban sanitation, streets filled with refuse, excrement, and dead animals
- - Killed 25 million people in Europe (1/3 of the population)
- - Killed people within 2 or 3 days
- - Symptoms were large boils, black blotches, and horrible body odor
- - Priests were called brahmins who knew the rituals, prayers, and technologies of sacrifice
- - Vishnu and Shiva became central gods
- - there were as many as 300 million gods
Ideal life cycle for a Hindu
- 1. Young man becomes a student and studies sacred texts
- 2. Gets married has children and acquires material goods
- 3. When he has grandchildren he leaves his home and meditates
- 4. He abandons his own identity and waits for death
- - Created by Gautama Buddha while meditating under a tree for 49 days
- - All suffering is caused by desire
- - To end desire, follow the eight fold path to reach nirvana:
- Right views, aspirations, speech, conduct, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, meditation.
- - Denies the existence of an individual soul
- - God ahura mazda represented goodness, light, and truth
- - Preached a final judgment day where all beings would either go to darkness or light
- - A moral society was ruled by hierarchical relationships especially those between family members
- - He felt the best government was filled with well educated people
- -Strive to live simply in harmony with nature
- - The way of life can be the cosmos, an eternal and unchanging principle, but it can also be a passive force.
- - Founded by Muhammad who received a proclamation from angel Gabriel
- - Quran is the bible
- - called on people to proclaim that one god had created the universe and would judge them at end of time, those who had not sinned would go to paradise and the sinful would go to hell.
Five Pillars of Islam
- 1. avow that there is only one god (Allah) and Muhammad is his prophet
- 2. Pray 5 times a day
- 3. fast during Ramadan
- 4. pay alms to the poor
- 5. make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least one during one's lifetime.