WH Chapter 13 last part
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When did the Renaissance in the north begin?
In the last quarter of the fifteenth century.
How was the Renaissance in the north different than in Italy?
It was more Christian than the Renaissance in Italy, and it stressed social reform based on Christian ideals.
How did Christian humanists seek to create a more perfect world?
By combining the best elements of classical and Christian cultures.
What did humanists like Lefèvre believe?
The use of the Bible by common people.
What did Thomas More, the author of Utopia, believe?
That society, not people, needed improving.
What was More?
A Christian lawyer and minister of King Henry VIII.
What was More's Utopia based on?
His Utopia was a socialistic society based on common ownership and social equality.
What does the Dutch monk Erasmus best represent?
Christian humanism in his emphasis on education as the key to a moral and intellectual improvement and inner Christianity.
How were the stories of the French humanist Rabelais?
They were distinctly secular but still had a serious purpose.
How were More and Rabelais alike?
Like More, Rabelais believed that institutions molded individuals and that education was the key to moral life.
What books did Rabelais write?
His books on the adventures of Gargantua and Pantagruel were spoofs on French social life.
How were Northern art and architecture different from Italy?
Northern art and architecture were more religious than in Italy and less influenced by classical themes and motifs.
How were Van Eyck's paintings?
Van Eyck painted realistic works with attention to human personality.
What themes did Bosch use?
Bosch used religion and folk legends as themes.
How were the city halls of Europe?
The city halls of northern Europe were grand architectural monuments.
How did Fifteenthcentury rulers began the process of order?
Through centralization of power.
What was the result of fifteenth century rules beginning the process of order?
The result was the rise of many powerful and ruthless rulers interested in the centralization of power and the elimination of disorder and violence.
Who were some of the rulers that rose to power in the north?
- Louis XI of France
- Henry VII of England
- Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain
- They seemed to be acting according to Machiavelli's principles.
What did Charles VII do?
- Charles VII ushered in an age of recovery and ended civil war.
- He expelled the English, reorganized the royal council, strengthened royal finances, reformed the justice system, and remodeled the army.
- He made the church subject to the state.
What did Louis XI do?
Expanded the French state and laid the foundations of later French absolutism.
What was the War of the Roses?
Between 1455 and 1471, the houses of York and Lancaster fought a civil war called the Wars of the Roses that hurt trade, agriculture, and domestic industry.
How did Edward IV end the War of the Roses?
Edward IV and his followers began to restore royal power, avoided expensive war, and reduced their reliance on Parliament for funds.
How was English Parliament after the War of the Roses?
The English Parliament had become a power center for the aristocracy but was manipulated by Henry VII into becoming a tool of the king.
What did Henry VII do?
- Henry VII used the royal council and the court of Star Chamber to check aristocratic power.
- Henry VII and his successors won the support of the upper middle class promoting their interest in money, trade, and stability.
What is the reconquista?
The reconquista was the centuries-long attempt to unite Spain and expel Muslims and Jews.
What wasthe last major step in the unification and Christianization of Spain?
The marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella
What were the hermandades in Spain?
They used the hermandades, or local police forces, to administer royal justice.
When did the reconquista end?
Ferdinand and Isabella completed the reconquista in 1492, but many Jews remained because they aided royal power.
What did Jews do and how were they viewed?
Jews were often financiers and professionals; many (called conversos) had converted but were still disliked and distrusted.
Why did Spanish mobs kill many Jews?
They needed a scapegoat during the Black Death
Why did Ferdinand and Isabella revive the Inquisition?
To use its cruel methods to unify Spain and expel the Jews
How did Spanish Christians treat the conversos?
Spanish Christians rejected conversos on the basis of race--out of fear of conversos taking over public offices. Most Jews fled from Spain.
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