Gen Chem 1/2

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Gen Chem 1/2
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2010-06-12 04:32:33
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General Chemistry Chapters 1 & 2
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  1. Submicroscopic particles that constitute the fundamental building blocks of ordinary matter
    atoms
  2. Atoms
    Submicroscopic particles that constitute the fundamental building blocks of ordinary matter
  3. Molecules
    2 or more atoms joined together in a specific geometrical arrangement
  4. 2 or more atoms joined together in a specific geometrical arrangement
    molecules
  5. Chemistry
    The science that seeks to understand the behavior of matter by studying the behavior of atoms and molecules
  6. The science that seeks to understand the behavior of matter by studying the behavior of atoms and molecules
    Chemistry
  7. Scientific Method
    Set of procedures used to acquire knowledge and explain phenomena
  8. Set of procedures used to acquire knowledge and explain phenomena
    Scientific method
  9. Steps to the Scientific Method
    • 1. Identify the problem
    • 2. Collect Data
    • A. Observe
    • B. Experiment
    • 3. Analyze information
    • 4. hypothesis
    • 5. More experiments to prove/disprove hypotheses
  10. Theory vs. Law
    A law summarizes what happens, a theory is an attempt to explain why it happens
  11. Matter
    Anything that has mass and occupies space
  12. Anything that has mass and occupies space
    matter
  13. Mass
    Measure of resistance of an object to change it's state of motion
  14. Measure of resistance of an object to change it's state of motion
    mass
  15. Weight
    Force gravity exerts on an object to measure it's mass
  16. Force gravity exerts on an object to measure it's mass
    weight
  17. Physical States of Matter
    Solid, liquid, gas
  18. Solid
    definite shape, definite volume
  19. Definite shape, definite volume state
    solid
  20. Definite volume, indefinite shape state
    liquid
  21. liquid
    definite volume, indefinite shape
  22. gas
    indefinite volume, indefinite shape
  23. indefinite volume, indefinite shape state
    gas
  24. Pure Substance
    • 1. One composed of only a single type of atom or molecule
    • 2. Single kind of matter, that cannot be separated into other kinds of matter by physical means
  25. Mixture
    1. A substance composed of two or more different types of atoms or molecules, that can be separated by physical means
  26. Types of Pure Substances
    1. Element 2. compound
  27. Element
    A substance that cannot be chemically broken down into simpler substances
  28. Compound
    A substance ocmposed of two or more elements in fixed, definite proportions that can be broken down by chemical means
  29. Types of Mixtures
    Homogeneous, heterogeneous
  30. Homogeneous
    Same composition throughout, one distinctly visible phase.
  31. Heterogeneous
    Composition varies from region to region, two or more distince phases.
  32. Physical Property
    One that a substance displays without changing it's composition
  33. Chemical Property
    One that a substance only displays by changing it's composition via a chemical change
  34. Physical Change
    Changes that alter only state or appearance, but not composition
  35. Chemical change
    Changes that alter the composition of matter
  36. Chemical reaction
    Process in which at least one new substance is produced as a result of a chemical change
  37. Temperature
    Measure of the hotness/coldness of an object
  38. 3 temperature scales used
    F, C, K
  39. Formula for converting K to C
    C = K - 273.15
  40. Formula for converting K to C
    K= C + 273.15
  41. Formula for converting C to F
    C = 5/9(F-32)
  42. Formula for converting F to C
    F = 9/5 (C + 32)
  43. Giga
    10 to the 9 power
  44. Mega
    10 to the sixth power
  45. Kilo
    10 to the third power
  46. Deci
    10 to the negative 1 power
  47. centi
    10 to the negative 2 power
  48. Milli
    10 to the negative 3rd power
  49. Micro
    10 to the negative 6th power
  50. Nano
    10 to the negative 9th power
  51. Density
    Ratio of the mass of an object to the volume the object occupies d= m/v
  52. Significant figures
    All digits that are certain plus the first uncertain digit
  53. Rules for counting sig figs
    • 1. All non zero digits are significant
    • 2. Confined zeros are significant
    • 3. Leading zeros are not significant
    • 4. Trailing zeros are significant if a decimal is present
  54. Multiplecation and Division with sig figs
    Product or quotient has the same amount of sig figs as the number with the least amount of sig figs
  55. Addition and Subtraction with sig figs
    Answer can be no more certain than the least certain digit
  56. Mixed Operations with Sig Figs
    Do add/sub first followed by mult/div to find correct number of sig figs
  57. Exact number
    Vale that has no uncertainty
  58. Accuracy
    How close you are to the actual answer
  59. Precision
    How repeatable your answer is
  60. Conversion factor
    Ratio that converts a measurement expressed in one unit to another unit
  61. How many in. in one cm?
    2.54
  62. How many g in one lb.?
    453.6
  63. Law of Conservation of Mass
    In chemical reactions mass is conserved
  64. Law of Definite Proportions
    A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass
  65. Law of Multiple Proportions
    When two elements form a series of compounds, the rations of the masses of the 2nd element that combine with 1 g of the first element can always be reduced to small whole numbers
  66. Dalton's Atomic Theory
    1. each element is made up of tiny particles called atoms 2. Atoms of a given element are identical, atoms of different elements are different in some fundamental way (s) 3. Chemical compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine, a given compound always has the same relative numbers and types of atoms 4. Chemical reactiosn involve the reorganization of atoms; changes in the way they are bound together, the atoms themselves are not changed
  67. Nuclear Theory of Atoms
    1. most of the atom's mass (99.9%) and all of ti's positive charge are contained in a small core called the nucleus 2. Most of the volume of the atom is empty space, throughout which tiny, negatively charged electrons are dispersed 3. There are as many negatively cahrged electrons outside the nucleus as there are positively charged particles with in the nucleus so the atom is neutral
  68. Subatomic Particles and their Charges
    1. Proton (+) 2. Electron (-) 3. Neutron (no charge)
  69. Atomic # (Z)
    Equals the number of protons
  70. Mass number (A)
    Equals the number of protons and neutrons
  71. Ion
    An atom/molecule with a net charge caused by the loss or gain of electrons
  72. Cation
    Positively charged atom
  73. Anion
    Negatively charged ion
  74. Period
    Row on periodic table
  75. Group
    Column on periodic table
  76. Metals
    1. Good conductors of heat and electricity 2. Malleable and ductile 3. Solids at room temp (except mercury) 4. Tend to lose electrons
  77. Non-metals
    1. Poor conductors of heat and electricity 2. Non malleable non ductile 3. Ten dto gain electrons
  78. Metalloids
    Semiconductors

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