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__ and __ of carbon atoms can be built up to form an endless variety of molecules.
What does the term organic mean?
- chains and rings
- derived from living organisms
Explain the history of organic chemistry?
Originally, it was the study of compounds from living organisms and their natural products. People accepted vitalism (belief that natural products needed a vital force to create them. Orgo then was the study of compounds having the vital force.
What was inorganic chem in the past?
study of gases, rocks, and minerals, and the compounds made from them
What changed organic chemistry?
when Friedrich Wohler created urea in a lab
How to distinguish between natural and synthetic? Is one better than the other?
- Carbon-14 dating because synthetic will have less radioactive carbon-14 and appear old because their carbon-14 has decayed over time
Plant-derived compounds are recently synthesizedd from __ in the air and have a higher content of __.
Distinctive feature of organic from inorganic.
they all contain one or more carbon atoms
True or False:
All carbon compounds are organic
- substances like diamond, graphite, etc. are derived from minerals and have inorganic properties
What do chemists do with the synthesized organic molecules?
serve as drugs, meds, etc.
Protons and neutrons have similar masses, about __ x the mass of an electron.
Almost all of the atom's mass is in the __, but it is the __ that take part in __ and __.
- chemical bonding
How are an element's chemical properties determined?
by the number of protons in the nucleus and the corresponding number of electrons around the nucleus
Because they are small and light, electrons show properties of what?
both particles and waves; in many ways, the electrons in atoms and molecules behave more like waves than like particles
Electrons that are bound to nuclei are found in__, which are?
- mathematical descriptions that chemists use to explain and predict the properties of atoms and molecules
The __ states we can never determine where the electron is; nevertheless, we can determine the __, the probability of finding the electron in a particular part of th eorbital. An orbital, then, is __.
- Heisenberg uncertainty principle
- electron density
- an allowed energy state for an electron, with an associated probability function that defines the distribution of electron density in sace
As n increases (n= shells), the shells are ?
farther from the nucleus, higher in energy, and can hold more electrons
All s orbitals are __, meaning __; the elctron density is only an function of __.
- spherically symmetrical
- the distance from the nucleus
Where is electron density highest?
at the nucleus and falls off exponentially with increasing distance from the nucleus
As opposed to the 1s orbital, the 2s has what?
a smaller amt of electron density close to the nucleus; most of the electron density is farther away, beyond a region of zero electron density called a node
True or False:
Because most of the 2s electron density is farther from the nucleus than that of the 1s, the 2s is lower in energy.
- True or False:
- Because most of the 2s electron density is farther from the nucleus than that of the 1s, the 2s is lower in energy. higher
True or False:
The farther away an electron is from an orbital, the higher the energy
Each p orbital consists of two lobes, one on either side of the nucleus, with a __ at the nucleus, which is___
- nodal plane
- flat (planar) region of space, including the nucleus, with zero electron density
2p orbitals have identical energies. This is called __.
Pauli exclusion principle
each orbital can hold a max of two electrons, provided that their spins are paired
when there are two or more orbitals of the same energy, electrons go into different orbitals rather than pair up in the same orbital
__ is common in inorganic molecules, but uncommon for organic compounds. __ is the most common in organic.
Define nonbonding electrons.
- valence-shell electrons that are not shared between two atoms; often called a lone pair
- help determine the reactivity of the compounds
The number of bonds an atom usually forms is called its __.
Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and halogens are (__)
- c: tetravalent
- n: trivalent
- o: divalent
- h and halogens: monovalent