Microbiology exam #1

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Microbiology exam #1
2013-09-18 01:47:11
Appendix II

Diagnostic test
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  1. kilo-
    • 10^3
    • 10^-1
    • 10^-2
    • 10^-3
    • 10^-6
    • 10^-9
    • 10^-12
  2. unpaired electrons can form a covalent bond which results in
    sharing two electrons between two atoms
  3. between C,H,O, and N covalent bonds can occur
    • CH4
    • :O=C=O:
    • :N=N:
  4. Cation formation
    Anion formation
    • loss of an electron result in a positive ion
    • gain of an electron results in a negative ion
  5. When an anion and a cation join together the molecule made becomes neutral
  6. 2 bonds that occur between water
    • hydrogen bond
    • polar covalent bond
  7. a hydrogen bond in water occurs between
    An oxygen and a hydrogen of two different water molecules
  8. polar covalent bonds in water occur between
    an oxygen and a hydrogen of a water molecule
  9. strongest bond
    medium strength bond
    weaker bond
    weakest bond
    • covalent
    • ionic
    • hydrogen
    • Van der Waals
  10. covalent bond description
    sharing of electrons
  11. ionic bond description
    electrostatic attraction between an anion and cation
  12. hydrogen bond description
    electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen bound to a N or O and a second N or O
  13. Van der Waals bond description
    electrostatic attraction between temporary shifting electron clouds
  14. Interactions between water and Na or Cl are
  15. polar reactions are
  16. hydrophilic meaning
    tendency to mix, dissolve, or wetted by water
  17. non polar interactions are
  18. hydrophobic meaning
    inability to mix with water
  19. condensation reaction
    when adding of two or more monomers, water is expelled and the monomers join together as one
  20. hydrolysis reaction
    when water is added to a polymer it breaks it up into two monomers
  21. oxidation reaction definition
    the transfer of electrons from a reductant to a oxidant
  22. 2 ways an oxidation-reduction reaction occurs
    • a reducing agent loses electrons and becomes oxidized
    • an oxidizing agent gains electrons and becomes reduced
  23. NH2
    • amino
    • carboxyl
    • ester
    • hydroxyl
    • ketone
  24. 4 fundamental macromolecules
    • protein
    • carbohydrates
    • lipids
    • nucleic acids
  25. 4 amino acid structure characterstics
    • NH3
    • side chain
    • alpha carbon attached to NH3
    • Carboxyl group
  26. 2 characteristics of proteins amino acids
    • amino acids have an L form
    • the carbons are chiral
  27. 2 basic alkaline amino acids identification clues
    • R-NH
    • N+
  28. acidic amino acids identification clue
  29. 3 basic alkaline amino acids
    • lysine
    • arginine
    • histidine
  30. 2 acidic amino acids
    • aspartate
    • glutamate
  31. 4 polar amino acids
    • glutamine
    • asparagine
    • serine
    • threonine
  32. 2 polar amino acid identification clues
    • carbonyl
    • hydroxyl
  33. 2 hydrophobic amino acid identification clues
    • no O or N
    • has an aromatic ring
  34. 5 hydrophobic amino acids
    • alanine
    • valine
    • isoleucine
    • leucine
    • methionine
  35. 3 hydrophobic amino acids w/ aromatic rings
    • phenylalanine
    • tyrosine
    • tryptophan
  36. 3 special amino acids
    • cysteine
    • glycine
    • proline
  37. special amino acid identification clue
    • -SH
    • NH3+ and a COO
    • a ring with an N inside the ring
  38. in a folded conformation of a protein the outside contains...
    while the inside region contains...
    • polar side chains
    • non polar side chains on the hydrophobic core
  39. this macromolecule have multiples of CH2O
  40. 2 kinds of lipids
    • hydrophobic
    • amphipathic
  41. amphipathic meaning
    one end of the molecule is hydrophilic and the other is hydrophobic
  42. hydrocarbon chain ex
  43. fatty acid lipids are usually
  44. isoprene lipid building block is
  45. 2 types of fatty acids
    • saturated
    • unsaturated
  46. 3 saturated fatty acid characteristics
    • carboxyl end
    • single carbon bonds
    • non kinked
  47. 3 unsaturated fatty acids characteristics
    • carboxyl end
    • one or more C=C
    • kinked
  48. freely permeable in cell membranes
    hydrophobic molecules
  49. cell membranes allow hydrophobic molecules because
    the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane allows them to cross over
  50. slightly permeable in cell membranes
    small uncharged polar molecules
  51. 2 types of molecules cannot cross the cell membrane
    • large uncharged polar molecules
    • ions
  52. osmosis definition
    water moves towards an area of higher concentration with lower water concentration
  53. isotonic solution
    an equal amount of concentration outside and inside the lipid bilayer
  54. hypertonic solution definition
    the outside of the lipid bilayer is more concentrated than the inside of the lipid bilayer
  55. hypotonic solution definition
    the outside of the lipid bilayer is lower in concentration than the inside
  56. a cell in isotonic solution
    no change occurs
  57. a cell in hypertonic solution
    decreases (shrivels) in size
  58. a cell in hypotonic solution
    increases (lyses) in size
  59. microtubules consist of these two filaments
    • microfilament
    • intermediate filament
  60. microfilament is made up of
    actin monomer
  61. intermediate filament is made up of
    fibrous subunit
  62. a microtubule is made up of
    tubulin monomer
  63. functions of kinesin on a microtubule
    walks along the microtubule track from the negative end to the positive end
  64. cytoskeleton proteins are made up of these 4
    • microfilament
    • intermediate filament
    • microtubule
    • kinesin
  65. 6 elements that makes up 98% of the mass of living things
  66. 2 things that make up an atom
    • positively charged nucleus (protons + neutrons)
    • negatively charged surrounding electrons
  67. atomic number
    number of protons
  68. atomic mass
    mass in 1 gram of mole of an element
  69. molecules definition
    combination of atoms sharing electrons
  70. electrons in a covalent bond are shared equally to form
    non polar covalent
  71. a bond with unequal electron sharing is a
    polar covalent bond
  72. hydrogen bonds are short lived and constantly break and reform in liquid
  73. two types of bonds in a compound that are hydrophilic
    • ionic bonds
    • polar bonds
  74. why are nonpolar molecules hydrophobic
    nonpolar molecules have no partial charges to attract water
  75. organic molecules
    those that contain a carbon-carbon bond
  76. 4 functions of proteins
    • catalyzing reactions
    • serves as receptors and transporters
    • provide structures
    • aid in movement
  77. building blocks of proteins are
    amino acids
  78. the alpha carbon on an amino acid is what kind of carbon
    a chiral carbon
  79. chiral carbonsĀ  exist in 2 different forms
    • optical isomers
    • enantiomers
  80. optical isomers (mirror images)
    same molecule formula and order of bonds but different arrangements of atoms
  81. amino acids are held together by
    peptide bonds
  82. primary sequence
    the linear sequence of amino acids
  83. peptide bonds form between these 2
    • carboxyl group of one amino acid
    • amino group of a second amino acid
  84. secondary structures
    are regular patterns that repeat over short regions of the polypeptide chain
  85. 2 types of secondary structures
    • alpha sheet
    • beta sheet
  86. the nature and order of side chains (primary structures) determines
    how a protein folds into its final tertiary structure
  87. the large number of amino side chains is responsible for the diversity of protein structures and functions
  88. proteins form stable, functional complexes with other proteins. These proteins exhibit
    quaternary structure
  89. how is the secondary structure stabilized
    by hydrogen bonding between O and H atoms of the peptide bonds in the main chain
  90. how is the tertiary structure stabilized
    by hydrogen bonding between side chains (acidic and basic) and side and main chains
  91. structural isomers
    same molecular formula but atoms are arranged differently
  92. 3 functions of carbohydrates
    • energy source for cells
    • store energy
    • structural role in cell walls
  93. disaccharides form when 2 monosaccharides undergo a condensation rxn to form a covalent glycosidic bond. The bond occurs between C-1 of one monosaccharide and the C-4 of another
  94. nucleotides of polymers
    nucleic acid
  95. nucleotides 3 components
    • pentose sugar
    • nitrogenous base
    • phosphate group
  96. 2 types of nucleic acids
    • DNA
    • RNA
  97. 3 functions of lipids
    • structural component of cell membranes
    • store energy
    • acts as cellular signals
  98. is an important bulding block of many lipids
  99. thermodynamics definition
    study of energy and matter changes
  100. 2 laws of thermodynamics
    • E is not created nor destroyed
    • energy transforms and tends to increase entropy
  101. are energetically favorable and can occur without an input of energy
  102. reactions with a -G and are termed spontaneous
  103. reactions with +G and termed non-spontaneous
  104. are not favorable and energy needs to be added to proceed
  105. activation energy
    is energy needed to reach this transition state
  106. function of enzymes
    are biological catalysts that can speed up rxn rates by stabilizing transition states and lowering activation energy
  107. LEO the lion says GER
  108. 3 domains
    • bacteria
    • archae
    • eukarya
  109. span the lipid bilayer and are amphipathic
    transmembrane proteins
  110. 6 factors that influence the rate of diffusion
    • temp
    • solubility of molecules
    • surface area
    • concentration gradient
    • thickness of membrane
    • mass of molecules
  111. bacterial cells don't contain this but eukaryotes do
  112. 5 structures found in the bacterial cell
    • cytoplasm
    • cell membrane
    • cell wall
    • nucleoid
    • flagellum
  113. encloses the cytoplasm
    cell membrane
  114. non-membrane bound area of the cytoplasm that contains the chromosome in the form of looped coil
  115. external helical filament whose rotary motor propels the cell
  116. cytoplasm contains DNA in the nucleioid
  117. the envelope that encloses the bacterial cell has a
    lipid membrane boundary
  118. the majority of the cell's weight is
  119. 5 ways to isolate the cell parts in order to study
    • detergent lysis
    • sonication
    • enzymatic digestion
    • mechanical disruption
    • centrifuge
  120. genetic analysis functions
    obtain mutants with altered genes and phenotypes
  121. cell membranes are made up of
    double layer of phospholipids
  122. 3 functions of the proteins embedded in membrane
    • anchor membranes
    • sense outside world
    • transports materials into and out of the cell
  123. ester linked lipids are found in these 2 domains
    • bacteria
    • eukaryotes
  124. ether linked lipids are found in these domains
  125. archael lipids has these 3 characteristics
    • ether linked lipids
    • branched terpenoids
    • linked terpenoid chains
  126. is the ability to determine the presence of an object
  127. magnification has no limit, resolution limited by properties of light
  128. 4 ways to increase resolution
    • shorter wavelength light
    • improve contrast
    • immersion oil
  129. visible light has a wavelength of
  130. maximum resolution is 1 wave length
  131. resolution of our eyes
    150 micrometers
  132. for electromagnetic radiation to resolve an object, what three conditions must exist
    • contrast between object and its medium
    • WV is smaller than the object
    • a detector with sufficient resolution for the given WV
  133. cells are made to adhere to a slide in a fixed position
  134. cells are given a distinct color
  135. detection and resolution of cells under a microscope are enhanced by these 2
    • fixation
    • staining
  136. differential stain
    stains one kind of cell but not the other
  137. differentiates between 2 types of bacteria
    gram stain
  138. retain crystal violet stain because of their thicker cell wall
    gram positive
  139. retain the stain of saffron not the crystal violet
    gram negative
  140. superimposes refracted light and transmitted light shifted out of phase
    phase contrast microscopy
  141. what things can you view with phase contrast
    live cells and cellular organelles
  142. phase contrast reveals differences in refractive index as patterns of light and dark
  143. incident light is absorbed by the specimen and reemitted at a lower energy, longer wavelength
    fluorescence micrscopy
  144. both excitation light and emitted light are focused together
    confocal laser scanning
  145. what things can we see with confocal microscopy
    • cells in 3D
    • allows observations of live microbes in real time
  146. 4 characteristics of electron microscopy
    • high frequency
    • great resolution
    • coated with metal
    • lasers are magnetic fields
  147. what 3 things are associated with electron microscopy
    • electrons behave like light waves
    • sample must absorb electrons
    • electron beam and sample are in a vacuum
  148. electrons pass through the specimen and reveals internal structures
    transmission electron
  149. electrons scan the specimen surface and reveals external features in 3D
    scanning electron
  150. detects unresolved objects
    dark field
  151. employs various stains
    bright field
  152. employs fluorophores for labeling
  153. visualizes cells in 3D
  154. exploits diffrences in refractive indices
    phase contrast
  155. atomic force microscope allows you to
    observe living cells in water
  156. molecules can be visualized in what 2 ways
    • x-ray crystallography
    • cryocrystallography
  157. best technique for examining the presence of a structure with a diameter of 500nm is
    electron micro
  158. order of reagents in gram stain
    • crystal violet
    • iodine
    • ethanol
    • safranin