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What are emergent properties?
Properties that can't be predicted to exist based only on knowledge of the system's individual components.
What is tissue?
It is a collection of cells that carry out related functions.
What is the Law of Mass Balance?
It states that if the amount of a substance in the body is to remain constant, any gain must be offset by an equal loss.
What is the body's load of a certain substance?
It is the amount of that certain substance in the body.
What is excretion?
It is the elimination of material from the body and is usually through urine, feces, lungs, or skin.
What is a metabolite?
It is any product created in a metabolic pathway.
What are the two primary organs that clear solvents from the body?
Kidney and Liver
What is clearance?
The rate at which a substance disappears from the blood.
What other places does clearance take place in besides the liver and kidney?
Saliva, sweat, breast milk, and hair
What is local control?
When cells in the vicinity of the change initiate the response.
What is reflex control?
When cells at a distant site from the change control the response.
What is the pattern in reflex pathways?
Stimulus--> Sensor--> Input signal--> Integrating center--> Output signal--> Target--> Response
What is negative feedback?
- When the response opposes or removes the signal.
- This type of feedback helps regulate a certain condition, or in other words, maintain homeostasis.
- They can restore the normal state but can't prevent the initial disturbance
What is a positive feedback loop?
When the response reinforces the stimulus rather than decreasing or removing it.
What is feed-forward control?
It is when there are anticipatory responses that predict when a change is going to occur (like when you salivate).
What is acclimatization?
It is the natural adaptation of physiological processes to a given set of environmental conditions.
What is acclimation?
It is the artificial adaptation of physiological processes to a given set of environmental conditions.
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