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what is the basis of psych testing?
what is a test?
is a measurement device or technique used to quantify behavior or aid in the understanding or prediction of behavior
What is an item? (2)
-is a specific stimulus to which a person responds overtly
-this response can be scored or evaluated
what is a psychological test?
is a set of items that are designed to measure characteristics of human beings that pertain to behavior
What are scales?
relate raw scores on test items to some defined theoretical or empirical distribution
3 things test may do
-predict future behavior
-infer hidden behavior
individual or group test; which is the test administrator more active?
3 types of human ability tests
(human ability tests) achievement tests
measure previous learning
(human ability tests) aptitude tests
measure potential for acquiring a particular skill
(human ability tests) Intelligence tests
predict future academic performance
What does intelligence refer to? (4)
a persons general ability to solve problems, adapt to changing circumstances, think abstractly, and profit from experience
what is a structured test?
there is a statement and the testee chooses a response to it from a limited set of possibilities
What is a projective test?
the stimulus and or the response are ambiguous
(principles of psych testing) Reliability
refers to the accuracy, dependability, consistency, or repeatability of test results
(principles of psych testing) Validity (1-1)
refers to the meaning and usefulness of tests
ex) for what inference is this test valid?
what is the act of handing out the test?
What dynasty was using test batteries?
han dynasty 200 BC-200 AD
In what year did the british east india company adopt the chinese system to select employees for overseas duty?
what year did the american govt established the AMERICAN CEIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION?
What was the idea behind the american civil service commission?
idea was that the smarter you were and the more knowledge you had the more likely you were able to do your job effectively
What was an important phrase that Darwin wrote on Origin of species?
bc of difference between individuals the fitter survived to reproduce and so passed their own traits, leading to current levels of intelligence and complexity
what book did francis galton write and who was he?
Hereditary genius; Darwin's cousin
who came up with the idea of mental tests?
James Mckeen CAttell
Who is credited with founding the science of psychology?
Where and what year did William Wundt set up a lab?
In University of Leipzig in 1879
What was the seguin form board?
one of the first western psych tests
why was seguin form board made?
- developed to educate and evaluate the mentally handicapped
- *it was just like fischers play shapes
Who was appointed by the French Ministry of Public instruction and why?
Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon, to develop a way to identify mentally subnormal individuals
What were Binets 3 revolutionary ideas?
-develops at a different rate
-can measure it by how people solve problems
what where the 2 things that 1905 Binet-scale introduced?
- mental age
In 1912, what did Stern do with mental age and chronological age?
he made it into a ratio
What did Terman do in 1916 to the Binet-Simon test? and what did he call it?
translated into english bc it had many items that were culture specific; Standford Binet
What was the name of the study Terman embarked upon?
What 2 groups did the army use ?
army alpha and army beta
What prompeted schools to use IQ tests?
after world war I
By end of 1930s, what did david weschler develop? what did it introduced and for who was it aimed for?
Weshcler-Bellvue; deviation IQ and performance scales; adults
what was the woodworth personal data sheet developed for?
to weed out army recurits who were more likely to develop shell shock
When did Rorschach first publish his inkblot test?
What did the freudians call rorschach test?
royal road to the unconsciousness
what does the thematic apperception test (TAT) measure?
Murrays theory about "needs" and "presses"
What can the TAT be useful for?
which was the first empirically developed personality test?
MMPI in 1937
what was the shakow report?
is the foundation of formal clinical training standars in pscyhology
where and when was shakow report made?
Boulder conference; 1947
what did the report specifiy? (2)
-psych testing was unique function of clinical psychs
-that the use of psych tests be taught only to doctoral level psych students
where did the term, scientist-professional for clinical psychs, originate from?
In shakow report, where clinical psychs allowed to do psychotherapy by themselves?
no only with collab with physicians
What two things were psyhcologistis uniquely trained in?
scientific methods and foundations of psych functions
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