A&P Midterm

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A&P Midterm
2013-08-30 16:58:16

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  1. Positive Feedback Loop
    Increase initial stimulus in body
  2. Homeostasis
    Bodys ability to remain stable
  3. negative feedback loop
    feedback that causes the stimulus to decline or end
  4. element
    building blocks of matter- oxygen, carbon, hydrogen for example
  5. anions
    isotopes with negative charge
  6. atom
    smallest part of an element
  7. molecule
    particle consisting of two or more atoms held together by a chemical bond(H2)
  8. cation
    isotope with negative charge
  9. compound
    substance composed of two or more different elements(H2O)
  10. mass number
    number of protons and neutrons
  11. atomic number
    # of protons in atom
  12. atomic weight
    average of mass numbers of all the isotopes of an element
  13. ion
    atom with positive or negative charge
  14. isotope
    different number of neutrons. different atomic form of the same element
  15. ionic bond
    bond formed by complete transfer of one or more electrons from one atome to another
  16. hydrogen bond
    weak bond in which a hydrogen atom forms a bridge between two electron hungry atoms
  17. glycerol
    a sugar alcohol, one of the building blocks of fats
  18. fatty acid
    building blocks of fats
  19. phospholipid
    modified triglyceride containing phosphorus
  20. steroid
    specific group of chemical substances including cerain hormones and cholesterol
  21. protein
    building material of cells, nitrogenous substance
  22. amino acid
    building block of protein
  23. enzyme
    catalyst, made of protein
  24. catalyst
    increases a chemical reaction
  25. substrate
    binds to an enzyme in a chemical reaction
  26. denature
    modify molecules structure
  27. product
    what is made from chemical reaction
  28. inhibitor
    substance that interferes with chemical reaction
  29. amphipathic
    has hydrophobic and hydrophylic characteristics
  30. DNA
    made of deoxyribose, nucleic acid
  31. RNA
    Ribonucleic acid, nucleic acid
  32. ATP
    Energy used and made by cells in chemical reactions
  33. diffusion
    spreading of gas across a permeable membrane
  34. crenate
    the contraction of a cell after exposure to a hypertonic solution, due to the loss of water through osmosis
  35. endocytosis
    process of cellular absorption
  36. exocytosis
    cell releases materials to the outside by discharging them as membrane-bounded vesicles passing through the cell membrane.
  37. receptor-mediated
    process by which cells internalize molecules or viruses
  38. rRNA
    ribosomal RNA
  39. mitosis
    process of cell division
  40. haploid
    with single set of chromosomes: having a single set of unpaired chromosomes
  41. diploid
    cell or organism consisting of two sets of chromosomes
  42. chondroblast
    found in cartilage, cells divide and actively secrete the ground substance
  43. lacuna
    anatomical cavity, space, or depression....usually in a bone
  44. collagen fibers
    major component of connective tissue, giving it strength and flexibility
  45. elsatic fibers
    stretchy fibers of body, made of elastin
  46. reticular fibers
    fine collagen fibers that form the skeleton of soft organs, made of collage protein called reticulin
  47. chondrocytes
    major cell type in cartilage ( cartilage cells)
  48. fibroblasts
    spindle shaped cells that form collagenous and elastic fibers
  49. macrophage
    active phagocytes derived from monocytes. move through loose C.T. and engulf foreign material and dead or dying cells
  50. mast cell
    contain large secretory granules that contain Heparin(anti clotting agent and histamine) increases capillary permeability and causes inflammation
  51. melanin
    responsible for skin color, dark pigment synthesized by melanocytes
  52. sebaceous gland
    oil gland, secretes oil
  53. sebum
    produced by sebaceous glands
  54. karatinocytes
    most abundant epidermal cells, provide physical and mechanical protection and produce antibodies, produce keratin
  55. dermal papillae
    peglike projections from the papillary layer, they indent the epidermis aboveprovide nutrients and house pain and touch receptors
  56. dermis
    second primary region of the skin, composed of reticular and papillary layer
  57. epidermis
    top layer of the skin, composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, four cell types- keratinocytes, merkel cells, langerhans, meloncytes
  58. apocrine sweat gland
    sweat glands in armpit and anogenital regions, their ducts empty into hair follicles
  59. eccrine sweat gland
    more abundant than apocrine glands, found in palms, soles, and forehead, ducts empty onto body surface, release 500ml of sweat a day
  60. sudoriferous gland
    sweat glands
  61. lacunae
    little depression or space, in bone or cartilage, occupied by cells
  62. keratin
    a fibrous protein that gives the epidermis its protective properties