What is the most important part of a physical exam?
What is a male dog called?
What is a female dog called?
What is a unweaned pup called?
What is the act of giving birth for dogs called?
What is a group of dogs called?
What is a male cat called?
What is a female cat called?
What is a young cat called?
What is the act of giving birth for cats called?
What is the pulse rate for a dog?
What is the pulse rate for a cat?
What is the respiratory rate for a dog?
What is the respiratory rate for a cat?
What is a normal temperature for a dog and cat?
What is the packed cell volume (PCV) for a dog?
What is the packed cell volume (PCV) for a cat?
What is a normal leukocyte count for a dog?
What is a normal leukocyte count for a cat?
What is a normal hemoglobin count for a dog?
What is a normal hemoglobin count for a cat?
What is the gestation period for a dog and cat?
What is the length of a estrus cycle for a dog?
What is the length of a estrus cycle for a cat?
12-21 (induced ovulator)
What is the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) for a dog?
What is the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) for a cat?
What is the normal glucose level for a dog?
What is the normal glucose level for a cat?
What is the coagulation time (clotting time) for a cat and dog?
What is the coagulation time (clotting time) for a horse?
What are 3 environmental factors for infectious diseases?
1) Means of transmission
2) Environmental control of microbes
3) Historical development
What are 12 means of transmission of infectious diseases?
4) Contagious infection
6) Direct contact transmission
7) Indirect transmission
9) Vector borne
10) Transovarial (Transplacental, Inutero)
11) Transstadial transmission
12) Congenital or Hereditary
What is a congenital disease?
Disease present at birth or develops due to the effects of a etiological factor on a developing embryo or fetus, on the mother before or during pregnancy or on the uterus or placenta.
What is a hereditary disease?
Disease or disorder that is passed on from either one or both parents to their offspring, genetic.
What are 5 ways to control microbes?
2) Cold sterilization
What are 2 factors of history that contributed to the spread of infectious diseases?
1) Lack of painkillers
2) Post surgical infections
What is a reservoir?
Natural habitat of its causative agent. Some organisms can multiply in inanimate reservoirs such as soil or water. Cannot shed the microorganism
What is a carrier?
Reservoir-like, can be clinically infected and can shed microorganism that cause disease
What is a source?
Reservoir and carriers are distinguished from a source of infection, which can be any vertebrae, invertebrae or inanimate object
What is a contagious infection?
Implies spread of a disease following intimate contact with a carrier or a reservoir
What is transmissibility and communicability?
Infection refers to its ability to spread from infected to susceptible host
What is horizontal transmission?
Between members of the same population
What is vertical transmission?
Succeeding generations through genetic material. Bitch- pups (in utero)
What is direct contact transmission?
Direct/close physical contact between host and susceptible host
What is indirect transmission?
Transfer from carrier to a susceptible host by animate or inanimate intermediates known as vehicles or fomites
What is airborne transmission?
Spread dependent upon ability or resistant microorganisms to travel for long distances or to survive in environment for periods of times until they encounter susceptible host
What happened in 1546 in regards to infectious diseases?
Fracastoro suggested disease results not from God but from living organisms
What happened in 1676 in regards to infectious diseases?
Leeuwenhoek provided means (microscope) for direct observation of bacteria for the 1st time but role of bacteria in cause of the disease was not noted for another 200 years
What happened in 1762 in regards to infectious diseases?
von Plenciz suggested specific disease is caused by specific organisms
What happened in 1892 in regards to infectious diseases?
Iwanowski discovered viruses
What is a etiological agent?
Cause of a disease. Can be viral, bacterial, fungus, metazoan, rickettsiae, protozoan, chiamydiae and mycoplasms
What are 2 classifications of etiological agents?
1) Internal factors
2) External factors
What are 3 internal factors of etiological agents?
1) Genetic- defect or mutation of genome
2) Immune system- defect of response
3) Aging- natural process of aging
What are 4 external factors of etiological agents?
1) Physical- trauma, pressure, etc.
2) Chemical- toxins, poisons, heavy metals
3) Infections- parasites, bacteria, viruses, fungi, etc.
4) Environmental- nutrition, temperature, radiation, and hygiene
What is a protozoa?
Most animal-like of protists, one cell
EX: Texas Fever- Babesia
What is fungi?
Non-chlorophyll plants and divided into categories of molds and yeast, are parasites
What is bacteria?
Unicellular with rigid cell wall with 3 shapes (coccus, bacillus, and spirillum) Composition of cell wall determines staining
What are two types of staining bacteria?
Gram positive (Blue) and gram negative (Red)
What are rickettsiae?
Microbes intracellular parasites dependent on cells of host, most utilize arthropods either as vector or host at some point.
What are chlamydiae?
Microorganism that resembles a rickettsiae, not well understood what they are
What are mycoplasmas (PPLO)?
Smallest free living organisms have no cell wall, resistant to antibiotics
What is a virus?
Living cells possessing either DNA or RNA, no enzyme systems, they do not conform t the commonly accepted definition for life forms
What is vector borne transmission?
Spread by arthropods, transmit from infected host to susceptible host commonly by blood
What is transstadial transmission?
Transfer from molting stages such as hymph to current host
What is sterilization?
Process which microorganisms are completely destroyed by chemical or physical means, ALL life forms including heat-resistant spores are killed
What is cold sterilization?
Immersing items in a disinfectant solution to reduce level of contamination, true sterilization is obtained with Cidex- Glutaraldehyde, submerged for hours
What is sanitation?
Cleaning measure intended to prevent disease and promote health, including routine cleaning as in cages, floors and buckets
What is disinfection?
Destruction of most pathogenic microorganisms, active vegetation not spores, used on inanimate objects like tables
What is a antiseptic?
Used for skin, same as disinfectant, treated with additives that dont damage the skin
EX: Provodone iodine, Zephrin
What is the active ingredient in Roccal-D?
Smallest of the sporting dogs. Descended from the English Cocker Spaniel. American breed was developed in the 19th century to flush out and retrieve quail. Colors: Black to red and white. Good with children, life span= 12-15 years
What are 6 causes and types of disease?
1) Hereditary- gene carriers
2) Congenital diseases- while pregnant
3) Deficiency diseases- inability digest
4) Physical trauma- lacerations
5) Poison diseases- toxins
6) Metazoan diseases (Multicellular and Unicellular)
What are 3 types of factors that influence cats and dogs to contact infectious diseases?
1) Host factors
2) Environmental factors
3) Agent factors
What are 5 host factors?
1) Developmental anomalies of the immune system
2) Maternal immunity
3) Age at the time of exposure
4) Concurrent illness
What are 5 environmental factors?
1) Population density
4) Accumulation of excretion
5) Animal movement from population
What are 3 agent factors?
3) Route of inoculation
What is the fasted route of injection?
What are 5 ways to prevent infectious diseases?
1) Vaccination programs
2) Clinical signs (remove animals)
3) Identify asymptomatic carriers
4) Isolate young animals
5) Prioritize cleanliness (sanitation and ventilation)
Good sporting dog and family pet. Originated in the 19th century in Newfoundland to retrieve and bring fisherman nets to the shore. Now used for household pet, bomb-sniffing, police dog, and seeing eye dog. Colors include black, yellow and chocolate.