Psych Set 1

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algarn2
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Psych Set 1
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2013-09-07 16:18:10
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college psych 110
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college psych class
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  1. SQ3R
    • a method using steps
    • 1)Survey
    • 2)Question
    • 3)Read
    • 4)Recite
    • 5)Review
  2. Psychology
    The study of behavior and mental processes
  3. Scientific Method
    The procedure a scientist has to follow in order to research a problem, create a study, collect and go over data, make conclusions, and state their findings
  4. Theory
    a generalized thought on explaining something
  5. Hypothesis
    a prediction about how something is going to react
  6. Replication
    repetition in verifying a finding
  7. Basic Research
    done to find new knowledge, very broad
  8. Applied Research
    specifically done to figure out a problem or improve life
  9. Structuralism
    very basic ideas of the unconscious mind
  10. Functionalism
    not just humans but animals adopted their thinking processes to the environment
  11. Christine Ladd-Franklin
    completed PhD requirements and had to wait 40yrs for her diploma
  12. Mary Calkins
    completed PhD requirements and refused to grant a doctorate to a woman, establish a lab, developed methods of studying memory, first female pres. of APA
  13. Margaret Washburn
    received PhD, taught, wrote books on animal behavior and mental imagery
  14. Francis Sumner
    first African American to receive a PhD in psych, translated more then 3,000 texts from German, French, & Spanish, "father" of A.A. psych
  15. Albert Beckham
    1st psychological lab at an A.A. institution of higher ed.
  16. Kenneth Clark & Mamie Clark
    studies of effects of racial segregation on younger kids and how it affects school (unconstitutional)
  17. George Sanches
    cultural and linguistic bias in intelligent testing
  18. Behaviorism
    determinant of behavior is environment, studies behavior
  19. Psychoanalysis
    focuses on the unconscious (personality and treatment of disorders)
  20. Humanistic Psychology
    Focuses on the specific human being and their choice, growth, health, etc.
  21. Positive Psychology
    the study to see what drives people to stay happy in bad times
  22. Cognitive Psychology
    study of how people think
  23. Gestalt Psychology
    study of how people perceive things
  24. Information-processing theory
    • computers mimic-ing human thinking to see
    • mental structures and processes
  25. Evolutionary Psychology
    study of survival and adaption
  26. Biological
    link between behaviors and biological make-up
  27. Neuroscience
    study of nervous system
  28. Sociocultural Approach
    social and culture factors maybe factor in behavior
  29. Psychological Perspectives
    points in explaining someones behavior
  30. Critical Thinking
    evaluating whether logical or not
  31. Descriptive Research methods
    descriptions of behaviors
  32. Naturalistic Observation
    No control, natural habitat
  33. Laboratory Observation
    studied in a lab
  34. Case Study
    one/few people studied in depth
  35. Survey
    group of people are asked questions
  36. Population
    entire group that is being researched
  37. Sample
    part of population to reach conclusions
  38. Representative Sample
    a sample that mirrors what everyone else is like
  39. Correlation Method
    used to establish a relationship between two things
  40. Correlation Coefficient
    numerical value, -1 --> +1
  41. Experimental Method
    cause-effect relationship between 2 or more variables
  42. Casual Hypothesis
    prediction about cause-effect
  43. Variable
    any factor that can be manipulated, controlled, or measured
  44. Independent Variable
    deliberately manipulated
  45. Dependent Variable
    stays the same
  46. Experimental Group
    Exposed to independent variable
  47. Control group
    not touched but in same environment
  48. Confounding Variables
    Factors (not independent variables) that are not equal in each group
  49. Selection Bias
    participants have to much similarity
  50. Random Assignment
    a control for selection bias
  51. Placebo Effect
    response is to what they think they should be feeling
  52. Placebo
    harmless substance given as a control
  53. Experimenter Bias
    when someones idea influences someone's behavior
  54. Double-blind technique
    when both the people and scientists don't know who is in what group
  55. Quasi-experiments
    groups that differ in exposure and cannot be changed due to ethical reasons
  56. Cross-cultural research
    study of humans in different cultures
  57. Participant-related Bias
    participants are not representing the generalized population
  58. Electroencephalogram (EEG)
    a record of brainwave activity mad by a machine called the electroencephalograph
  59. Microelectrode
    a small wire used to monitor the electrical activity of or stimulate activity within a single neuron
  60. CT Scan (Computerized Axial Tomography)
    a brain-scanning technique that uses rotating, computerized x-ray tube to produce cross-sectional images of the structures of the brain
  61. MRI ( Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
    A diagnostic scanning technique that produces high-resolution images of the structures of the brain
  62. PET Scan (Positron-Emission Tomography)
    a brain imaging technique that reveals activity in various parts of the brain, based on patterns of blood flow, oxygen use, and glucose consumption
  63. Functional MRI (fMRI)
    a brain-imaging technique that reveals both brain structure and brain activity more precisely and rapidly than PET
  64. Neuron
    a specialized cell that conducts impulse through the nervous system
  65. Neurotransmitters
    Specialized chemicals that facilitate or inhabit the transmission of impulses from one neuron to the next
  66. Cell Body
    the part of a neuron that contain the nucleus and carries out metabolic functions of the neuron
  67. Dendrites
    in a neuron, the branch-like extensions of the cell body that receive signals from other neurons
  68. Axon
    the slender tall-like extension of the neuron that transmits signals to the dendrites or cell body of the neutrons and to muscles, glands, and other parts of the body
  69. Axon Terminal
    bulbous end of the axon where signals move from the axon to the dendrites or cell body of another
  70. Glial Cell
    specialized cells in the brain and spinal cord that support neurons, remove waste from products such as dead neurons, and perform other manufacturing, nourishing, and cleanup tasks
  71. Synapse
    the junction where the axon terminal of a sending neuron communicates with a receiving neuron across the synaptic cleft
  72. Resting Potential
    the slight negative electrical potential of the axon membrane of a neuron at rest, about - 70 millivolts
  73. Action Potential
    the sudden reversal of the resting potential, which initiates the firing of a neuron
  74. Myelin Sheath
    the white fatty coating wrapped around some axons that acts as insulation and enables impulses to travel much faster
  75. Receptors
    protein molecules on the surface of dendrites and cell bodies that have distinctive shapes and will interact with only with specific neurotransmitters
  76. Reuptake
    the process by which neurotransmitters are taken from the synaptic cleft back into the axon terminal for later use, thus terminating their excitatory or inhibitory on the receiving neutron
  77. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    the nerves connecting the central nervous system to the rest of the body
  78. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    the part of the nervous system comprising the brain and the spinal cord
  79. Sympathetic Nervous System
    the devision of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes the body's resources during stress and emergencies, preparing the body for action
  80. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    the division of the autonomic nervous system that brings the heightened bodily responses back to normal following an emergency
  81. Spinal Cord
    an extension of the brain, from the base of the brain through the neck and spinal column, that transmits messages between the brain and the peripheral nervous system
  82. Hindbrain
    a link between the spinal cord and the brain that contains structures that regulate physiological functions, including heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure
  83. Brainstem
    the structure that begins at the point where the spinal cord enlarges as it enters the brain and handles functions critical to physical survival. It includes the medulla, the reticular formation, and the pons
  84. Medulla
    the part of the brainstem that controls heartbeat, blood pressure, breathing, coughing, and swallowing
  85. Pons
    the bridge-like structure that connects the medulla and the cerebellum
  86. Reticular Formation
    a structure in the brainstem that plays a crucial role in arousal and attention and that screens sensory messages entering the brain
  87. Cerebellum
    the brain structure that helps the body execute smooth, skilled movements and regulates muscle tone and posture
  88. Midbrain
    area that contains structures linking the physiological functions of the hindbrain to the cognitive functions of the forebrain
  89. Substantia Nigra
    the structure in the midbrain that controls unconscious motor movements
  90. Forebrain
    the largest part of the brain where cognitive functions as well as many of the motor functions of the brain are carried out
  91. Thalamus
    a structure located above the brainstem, that acts as a relay station for information flowing into or out of the forebrain
  92. Hypothalamus
    a small but influential brain structure that regulates hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, internal body temperature, other body functions, and a wide variety of emotional behaviors
  93. Limbic System
    a group of structures in the brain, including the amygdala and hippocampus, that are collectively involved in emotional expression, memory, and motivation
  94. Amygdala
    a structure in the limbic system that plays an important role in emotion, particularly in response to unpleasant or punishing stimuli
  95. Hippocampus
    a structure in the limbic system that plays a central role in the storing of new memories, the response to new or unexpected stimuli, and navigational ability
  96. Cerebrum
    the largest structure of the human brain, consisting of the two cerebral hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum and covered by the cerebral cortex
  97. Cerebral Hemisphere
    the right and left halves of the cerebrum, cover by the cerebral cortex and connected by the corpus callosum; they control movement and feeling on the opposing side of the body
  98. Corpus Callosum
    the thick band of nerve fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and makes possible the transfer of information and the synchronization of activity between the hemispheres
  99. Cerebral Cortex
    the gray, convoluted covering of the cerebral hemispheres that is responsible for the higher mental processes of language, memory, and thinking
  100. Association Areas
    areas of the cerebral cortex that house memories and are involved in thought, perception, and language
  101. Lateralization
    The specialization of one of the cerebral hemispheres to handle a particular function
  102. Left Hemisphere
    the hemisphere that controls the right side of the body, coordinates complex movements, and, in most people, handles most of the language functions
  103. Right Hemisphere
    the hemisphere that controls the left side of the body and, in most people, is specialized for visual-spatial perception
  104. Split-Brain Operation
    a surgical procedure, performed to treat severe cases of epilepsy, in which the corpus callosum is cut, separating the cerebral hemispheres
  105. Frontal Lobes
    the largest of the brain's lobes, which contain the motor cortex, Broca's area, and the frontal association areas
  106. Prefrontal Cortex
    the part of the frontal lobes directly behind the forehead that controls executive processing, the coordination of multiple brain activities in pursuit of cognitive goals
  107. Motor Cortex
    the strip of tissue at the rear of the frontal lobes that control voluntary body movement and participates in learning and cognitive events
  108. Broca's Area
    the area in the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that controls the production of speech sounds
  109. Broca's Aphasia
    an impairment in the physical ability to produce speech sounds or, in extreme cases, an inability to speak at all; cause by damage to Broca's area
  110. Aphasia
    a loss or impairment of the ability to use of understand language, resulting from damage to the brain
  111. Parietal Lobe
    the lobes that contain the somatosensory cortex (where touch, pressure, temperature, and pain register) and other areas that are responsible for body awareness and spatial orientation
  112. Somatosensory Cortex
    the strip of tissue at the front of the parietal lobes where touch, pressure, temperature, and pain register in the cerebral cortex
  113. Occipital Lobe
    the lobes that are involved in the reception and interpretation of visual information, the contain the primary visual cortex
  114. Primary Visual Cortex
    he area at the rear of the occipital lobes where vision registers in the cerebral cortex
  115. Temporal Lobe
    the lobes that are involved in the reception and interpretation of auditory information, they contain the primary auditory cortex. Wernicke's area, and the temporal association areas
  116. Primary Auditory Cortex
    the part of each temporal lobe where hearing registers in the cerebral cortex
  117. Wernicke's Area
    the language area in the left temporal lobe involve with comprehending the spoken word and in formulating coherent speech and written language
  118. Wernicke's Aphasia
    aphasia that results from damage to Wernicke's area and in which the person's speech is fluent and clearly articulated but does not make sense to listeners
  119. Pruning
    the process through which the developing brain eliminates unnecessary or redundant synapses
  120. Plasticity
    the capacity of the brain to adapt to changes such as brain damage
  121. Stroke
    an event in the cardiovascular system in which a blood clot or plug of fat blocks an artery and cuts off the blood supply to a particular area of the brain
  122. Endocrine System
    a system of ductless glands in various parts of the body that manufacture hormones and secrete them into the bloodstream, thus affecting cells in other parts of the body
  123. Hormone
    a chemical substance that is manufactured and released in one part of the body and affects other parts of the body
  124. Pituitary Gland
    the endocrine gland located in the brain that releases hormones that activate other endocrine glands as well as growth hormone; often called the "master gland"
  125. Pineal Gland
    the endocrine gland that secretes the hormone that controls the sleep/wakefulness cycle
  126. Thyroid Gland
    the endocrine gland that procedures thyroxine and regulates metabolism
  127. Parathyroid Gland
    the endocrine glands that produce PTH, a hormone that helps the body absorb minerals from the diet
  128. Thymus Gland
    the endocrine gland that produces hormones that are essential to immune system functioning
  129. Pancreas
    the endocrine gland responsible for regulating the amount of sugar in the bloodstream
  130. Adrenal Gland
    a pair of endocrine glands that release hormones that prepare the body for emergencies and stressful situations and also release corticoids and small amounts of sex hormones
  131. Gonads
    the ovaries in females and the testes in males; endocrine glands that produce sex hormones
  132. Genes
    the segments of DNA that are located on the chromosomes and are basic units for the transmission of all hereditary traits
  133. Chromosomes
    rod-shaped structures in the nuclei of body cells, which contain all the genes and carry all the genetic information necessary to make a human being
  134. Genotype
    an individual's genetic makeup
  135. Phenotype
    an individual's actual characteristics
  136. Dominant-Recessive Pattern
    a set of inheritance rules in which the presence of a single dominant gene causes a trait to be expressed but two genes must be present for the expression of a recessive trait
  137. Polygenic Inheritance
    a pattern of inheritance in which many genes influence a trait
  138. Multifactorial Inheritance
    a pattern of inheritance in which a trait is influenced by both genes and environmental factors
  139. Behavioral Genetics
    a field of research that uses twin studies and adoption studies to investigate the relative effects of hereditary and environment on behavior

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