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Prevalence rates
TOTAL amount of Active disease present in a defined population at a particular point in time.

Incidence rates
Rate of NEW Cases Diagnosed in a defined population in a given time period.

Mortality rates
Measures the Risk of DEATH under study in a defined population during a given time period.

Incidence rate is calculated as follows:
An incidence rate is calculated as follows:
 Number of new cancers diagnosed during a given time period (divided by)
 Total number in population at risk (then)
 X 100,000

Cancer Prevalence rate is calculated as follows:
Prevalence rate is calculated as follows:
Number of active (existing) cancer cases at a given point in time (divided by) Total number in population at risk (then) X 100,000

Cancer Mortality rates is calculated as follows:
Mortality rates is calculated as follows:
Number of cancer deaths during a given period of time (divided by) Total number in population at risk (then) X 100,000

The rate of occurrence of NEW cases diagnosed in a defined population in a given time period is called an __________ rate.
Incidence rate

The rate of occurrence of the TOTAL number of alive cases, both new and previously diagnosed,in a defined population at a particular point in time is called a __________ rate.
Prevalence rate

The rate of dying in a defined population during a given time period is called either a DEATH rate or a __________ rate.
Mortality rate

If you knew that in your state there were 64,133 people alive with cancer and that 23,457 new cases would be diagnosed this year, what other information would you need to compute rates, and what kinds of rates could you compute?
 The Population of your state for that year to compute:
 Prevalence Rate
 1. 23,457 + 64,133 (divided by) Total number of population (then) X 100,000
 Incidence Rate
 2. 23,457 (divided by) Total number of population (then) X 100,000

When a rate is based on the entire population and includes cancer of all sites for persons of all ages, races, and both sexes, it is called a __________ rate.
It is called a CRUDE rate

Descriptive statistics
Descriptive statistics
 Numerical summaries which describe an observed frequency distribution
 (i.e., mean, median, variance, range, etc.).

Inferential statistics
Inferential statistics
Sample statistics which estimate population statistics.

Indicate the proper order of work in preparing a statistical report by numbering the order of work for the following:
__ Selecting the cases
__ Defining the problem
__ Presenting the data
__ Analyzing the data
The proper order of work in preparing a statistical report is as follows:
 1. Defining the problem
 2. Selecting the cases
 3. Analyzing the data
 4. Presenting the data.

Very complex detailed data can only be completely presented in a _______.
Relationships in data can be emphasized more vividly by using a _______.
Very complex detailed data can only be completely presented in a table.
Relationships in data can be emphasized more vividly by using a graph.

Indicate whether a table (T) or a graph (G) is the preferred method of presentation in the following situations:
__ a. Frequency distribution by site, sex, race, and time period of all cancers in yourinstitution
__ b. Survival trends over time by sex for lung cancer
__c. Presentation by stage of disease of female breast cancer to illustrate a talk
__ d. Detailed treatment distribution of cervical cancer for a doctor on the staff atyour hospital
 Indicate whether a table (T) or a graph (G) in the following situations:
 T a. Frequency distribution by site, sex, race, and time period of all cancers in yourinstitution
 G b. Survival trends over time by sex for lung cancer
 G c. Presentation by stage of disease of female breast cancer to illustrate a talk
 T d. Detailed treatment distribution of cervical cancer for a doctor on the staff of yourhospital

If your sample is too small, your ___________ may be faulty. 2 words
If your sample is too small, your generalizations/conclusions may be faulty.

Define what a Table is and what's included in a table:
 A table is an orderly arrangement of values which groups data into classes.
 Variables such as vital status, race, age, treatment, and stage of disease have a system of classification. V

What are the four essential components of the title of a table or graph, all of which begin with"W"?
1. ______
2. ______
3. ______
4. ______
 The four essential components in the title of any table or graph are:
 1. What
 2. Who
 3. Where
 4. When

The best medium for presenting data for quick visualization is:
[] A table
[] A graph
[] An abstract
[] The medical record
The best medium for presenting data for quick visualization is a graph.

Indicate whether the following types of tables are reference (R) or summary (S) tables.
a. Stage distribution for white females with breast cancer for your state in 1986
b. Number and percent distribution of all cancer cases seen at your institution in 198687 by site, sex and age group
c. Sex distribution of lung cancer from 196085 for your hospital
The following table is a reference table ( R) or a summary table ( S).
 S a. Stage distribution for white females with breast cancer for your state in 1986
 R b. Number and percent distribution of all cancer cases seen at your institutionin 198687 by site, sex, stage, treatment, and age group
 S c. Sex distribution of lung cancer from 196085 for your hospital

If you wish to classify data according to two variables simultaneously, such as sex and age, prepare a ______ way table with one variable appearing ______ and the other variable appearing ______.
If you wish to classify data according to two characteristics simultaneously, such as, sex and age, prepare a twoway table with one characteristic appearing horizontally and the other characteristic appearing vertically.

When a detailed crossclassification of more than two variables is to be presented in tabular form,list two possible methods of presentation.
1.
and
2.
1. A threeway or fourway classification table.
2. More than one table.

The basic form of a graph is by doing the follow:
By plotting numbers in relation to two axes the Yaxis and the Xaxis.

What is the Yaxis?
The Yaxis (vertical) is called the ordinate.

What is the Xaxis?
The Xaxis (horizontal) is called the abscissa.

What is the TITLE on the graph?
The TITLE must tell as simply as possible what the graph shows.
Answer the 4W questions.

What is the LEGEND or KEY on the graph?
 The LEGEND or KEY:
 When several variables are included on the same graph, it is necessary to identify each line.

What is the FOOTNOTE used for in a graph?
FOOTNOTES:
If the title, scale labels, and legend cannot explain everything in the graph, then footnotes should be used as in tables.

What is and why should you use a SOURCE in a graph?
SOURCE:
The exact reference to an outside source should be given just as for tables.

Types of Graphs
Bar Graphs
Bar graphs are particularly effective when you want to compare values between categories.

There are two kinds of TimeTrend data:
• Point data which are taken at a specified instant of time
• Period data which cover an average or total over a specified period of time, such as a year or a 5year time interval.

If there are too many values in your data item for easy analysis, you may wish to group your data into ______ .
If there are too many values in your array for easy analysis, you may wish to group your data into intervals.

When data are grouped into intervals, we call these intervals _______ .
When data are grouped into intervals, we call these intervals classes.

If it is more important to you to know the relative number of patients in each class then it is to know the actual number of cases, use a ______ distribution
If it is more important for you to know the relative number of patients in each class than it is to know the actual number of patients, use a percentage distribution.

______ graphs emphasize individual amounts, while ______ graphs emphasize general trends.
Bar graphs emphasize individual amounts, while line graphs emphasize general trends.

A frequency distribution shown in bar graph form is called a ______ .
A frequency distribution shown in bar graph form is called a histogram.

Match the type of graph on the left with the description on the right.
1. Bar graph a. The sum of the heights of the bars represents all the cases so no space is left between bars.
2. Pie chart b. Shows proportional parts of the whole in terms of degrees
3. Histogram c. Dots give the location and create the effect of density.
4. Map d. The individual heights of each bar represent a whole, so space isusually left between the bars.
5. Frequency e. A line graph which represents all eases polygon
 d 1. Bar graph The individual heights of each bar represent a whole, sospace is usually left between bars.
 b 2. Pie chart Shows proportional parts of the whole in terms of degrees
 a 3. Histogram The sum of the heights of the bars represents all the cases so no space is left between bars.
 c 4. Map Dots give the location and create the effect of density.
 e 5. Frequency polygon A line graph which represents all cases

The value of the frequency polygon over the histogram is:
a. Component parts of the whole can be shown.
b. It shows the distribution of all cases according to some variable.
c. Several sets of data can be presented simultaneously.
d. It shows trends over time.
 It shows trends over time
c. The value of the frequency polygon over the histogram is that several sets of data can be presented simultaneously.

Pie charts are used:
a. To compare two distributions.
b. To illustrate how the whole is divided into segments.
c. To create an impression of density.
d. To emphasize general survival trends.
b. Pie charts are used to illustrate how the whole is divided into segments. They are not appropriate for a, c, and d.

Match the type of scale on the left with effect on the right.
1. Arithmetic scale a. Rate of change
2. Semilog scale b. Absolute change
b 1. Arithmetic scale: Absolute change
a 2. Semilog scale: Rate of change

The survival time from diagnosis until death of seven cancer patients was as follows: 0, 2, 3, 5,5, 7 and 34 months.
a. What was the mean survival time?
b. What was the median survival time?
¢. What is the modal survival time?
d. What was the range of survival times?
The survival time from diagnosis until death of 7 cancer patients:
 a. mean survival = 56/7 = 8 months
 b. median = 5 months (middle value = 5)
 c. mode = 5 months (two patients survived 5 months)
 d. range = 34 months0 months = 34 months.

Which of the above measures of central tendency best describes the distribution of survival times?
Choose the best answer mean, median or mode?
The median is the best descriptor of central tendency in this case since it is not affected by the extreme value of 34 months. Six of the seven patients survived 7 months or less, yet the average survival was 8 months due to the one patient who survived for 34 months, an"extreme" for this group of patients.

Descriptive cancer epidemiology is the ______ study of the of cancer in man.
Descriptive cancer epidemiology is the study of the distribution of cancer in man

In studying the distribution of cancer in man one measures the ______ of getting cancer or dying from it.
In studying the distribution of cancer in man one measures the risk of getting cancer or dying from it.

What measures of risk do we associate with the study of cancer?
1. __________
2. __________
Two measures of risk associated with the study of cancer are:
1. Morbidity
2. Mortality

How is the measure of risk expressed?
The measure of risk is expressed in the form of a rate.

What two components are required in order to calculate a rate?
The two components which are required in order to express a rate are:
1) number of disease occurrences or deaths
2) number of people at risk of getting the disease

Three measures of risk, two of which deal with morbidity and one of which deals with mortality,are:
1. __________
2. __________
3. __________
Three measures of risk, two of which deal with morbidity and one of which deals with mortality, are:
1. Incidence rates
2. Prevalence rates
3. Mortality rates

What is the difference between a CRUDE Incidence rate and an AGESPECIFIC Incidence rate?
A CRUDE Incidence rate encompasses all newly diagnosed cases within a given time period regardless of Age.
An AGESPECIFIC Incidence rate is specific for persons of a given age group.

What is the difference between a CRUDE rate and an AGEADJUSTED rate?
A CRUDE rate is based on the distribution of the actual total population at risk.
An AGE ADJUSTED rate has been "adjusted" or "corrected" to take into account the difference in age distribution between two population groups.

Survival can be measured in terms of survival
________ (average (mean) or median) or in terms of a survival ________.
Survival can be measured in terms of survival time (average (mean) or median) or in terms of a survival rate.

When you measure the survival of a patient group for a specific period of time after diagnosis, it is called an _____ _____ rate.
It is called an....
When you measure the survival of a patient group for a specific period of time after diagnosis, it is called an observed survival rate.

When the calculation for an observed survival rate is done every time someone dies, that is called the ______ ______ ______ or sometimes the ______ ______ ______.
When the calculation for an observed survival rate is done every time someone dies, that is called the Kaplan  Meier method or sometimes the product moment method.

Observed survival rates underestimate survival from cancer because they group deaths from all causes in the calculations.
Two other calculations you might be able to use are:
1)
2)
Observed survival rates underestimate survival from cancer because they group deaths from all causes in the calculations.
Two other calculations you might be able to use are:
1) the adjusted survival rate and
2) the relative survival rate.

The general forms that analytic epidemiologic studies may take are
1)
and
2)
The general forms that analytic epidemiologic studies may take are
1) observational and
2) experimental.

A study in which a group of people without cancer, but characterized by a common exposure are identified and followed over a period of time to observe the development of cancer might be called a:
1. __________ study
2. __________ study
Both of these are __________ studies.
A study in which a group of people without cancer, but characterized by a common exposure are identified and followed over a period of time to observe the development of cancer, might be called a:
1. COHORT study or
2. PROSPECTIVE study.
Both of these are OBSERVATIONAL studies.

One group of people with cancer and another group of people without cancer, but otherwise similar, are selected and then compared for possible differences of exposure to carcinogenic agents in the past, might be called a:
1. __________ study or
2. __________ study
These, too, are __________ studies.
One group of people with cancer and another group of people without cancer, but otherwise similar, are selected and then compared for possible differences of exposure to carcinogenic agents in the past, might be called:
1. RETROSPECTIVE study or
2. CASECONTROL study.
These, too, are OBSERVATIONAL studies.

When an investigator studies the impact of some factor under his/her control on the natural history of disease, it is called an study.
When an investigator studies the impact of some factor under his/her control on the natural history of disease, it is called an experimental study

One of the strengths of a cohort group approach is (select one):
1. Low cost of such studies.
2. Exposure can be accurately recorded at time it happens.
3. Long latency periods irrelevant.
4. Diagnostic bias unlikely.
One of the strengths of a cohort group approach is that
(2) exposure can be accurately recorded at the time it happens.
However, this approach is always costly, the latency period can be very long and, therefore, irrelevant, and diagnostic bias is likely.

The basic measure of risk of disease associated with an exposure calculated from a casecontrol study is the ______ ______.
The basic measure of risk of disease associated with an exposure calculated from a case control study is the odds ratio.

When drawing conclusions about populations based on data from limited samples, the process is known as It is a concept we all use in our daily lives.
page 187
When drawing conclusions about populations based on data from limited samples, the process is known as statistical inference. It is a concept we all use in our daily lives.

The normal curve is ______ bout the mean, also, the mean, median, and mode are ______. Only the width of the curve may vary depending on the spread of values outward from the mean in both directions.
The normal curve is symmetrical about the mean, also the mean, median, and mode are identical. Only the width of the curve may vary depending on the spread of values outwardfrom the mean in both directions.

The spread of values outward from the mean in both directions is called the ______ ______ such that 95 percent of the observations lie between the mean and _+1.96 ______ ______ from a normal distribution.
The spread of values outward from the mean in both directions is called the standard deviation such the 95 percent of the observations lie between the mean and _+ 1.96 standard deviations from a normal distribution.

What is the "MEAN"?
The Mean is
the arithmetic average is the sum of all the values, divided by the number of values

What is the "MEDIAN"?
The Median is
the middle point or value or called "midpoint", sort by ranking order from smallest to the largest

What is the "MODE"?
What is the Mode
the most frequently seen value

Confounding effects are very common in clinical and epidemiological research and the best way to avoid them is through ______ ______.
Confounding effects are very common in clinical and epidemiological research and the best way to avoid them is through random sampling

Every individual in the study population has an equal and independent chance of beingselected in a ______ ______
Every individual in the study population has an equal and independent chance of being selected in a random sample

When data cannot be expressed in terms of discrete values, sample statistics can be calculated for ______ and ______.
When data cannot be expressed in terms of discrete values, sample statistics can be calculated for proportions and rates.

In research studies, a statement which claims a relationship between a study variable and an outcome variable is called a ______. You actually state that there is no difference,the ______ ______.
In research studies, a statement which claims a relationship between a study variable and an outcome variable is called a hypothesis. You actually state that there is no difference,the null hypothesis.

For the purpose of testing the null hypothesis that there is no difference between two sample means you apply the __ test.
For the purpose of testing the null hypothesis that there is no difference between two sample means you apply the t test.

For the purpose of testing the null hypothesis that there is no difference between two sample proportions you apply the __ test.
For the purpose of testing the null hypothesis that there is no difference between two sample proportions you apply the z test.

What is "Alternative Hypothesis"?
What is "Alternative Hypothesis"
Meaningful difference between groups the H_{a} rejecting the Null

What is "Null Hypothesis"?
What is "Null Hypothesis"
No meaningful difference between groups the H_{o}

What is "Standard deviation"?
What is "Standard deviation"
Square root of the variance

What is "Range"?
What is "Range"
Is the difference between the upper and lower limits of a series of values
* the easiest measure of variation

What is "Variance"?
What is "Variance"
Average of the squared differences of the mean

For the purpose of testing the null hypothesis that there is no difference between more than two means you apply the ____ ______ test
For the purpose of testing the null hypothesis that there is no difference between more than two means you apply the chi square test

What is "Qualitative data"?
What is "Qualitative data"
Categorical data being related groups
(i.e. nominal or ordinal data)

What is "Quantitative data"?
What is "Quantitative data"
Continuous data variables are measurable
(i.e. interval or ratio)

