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Sec 3
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2013-09-03 15:46:21
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Statistic
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  1. Prevalence rates
    TOTAL amount of Active disease present in a defined population at a particular point in time.
  2. Incidence rates
    Rate of NEW Cases Diagnosed in a defined population in a given time period.
  3. Mortality rates
    Measures the Risk of DEATH under study in a defined population during a given time period.
  4. Incidence rate is calculated as follows:
    An incidence rate is calculated as follows:


    • Number of new cancers diagnosed during a given time period (divided by)
    • Total number in population at risk (then)
    • X 100,000
  5. Cancer Prevalence rate is calculated as follows:
    Prevalence rate is calculated as follows:

    Number of active (existing) cancer cases at a given point in time (divided by) Total number in population at risk (then) X 100,000
  6. Cancer Mortality rates is calculated as follows:
    Mortality rates is calculated as follows:

    Number of cancer deaths during a given period of time (divided by) Total number in population at risk (then) X 100,000
  7. The rate of occurrence of NEW cases diagnosed in a defined population in a given time period is called an __________ rate.
    Incidence rate
  8. The rate of occurrence of the TOTAL number of alive cases, both new and previously diagnosed,in a defined population at a particular point in time is called a __________ rate.
    Prevalence rate
  9. The rate of dying in a defined population during a given time period is called either a DEATH rate or a __________ rate.
    Mortality rate
  10. If you knew that in your state there were 64,133 people alive with cancer and that 23,457 new cases would be diagnosed this year, what other information would you need to compute rates, and what kinds of rates could you compute?
    • The Population of your state for that year to compute:
    • Prevalence Rate
    • 1. 23,457 + 64,133 (divided by) Total number of population (then) X 100,000

    • Incidence Rate
    • 2. 23,457 (divided by) Total number of population (then) X 100,000
  11. When a rate is based on the entire population and includes cancer of all sites for persons of all ages, races, and both sexes, it is called a __________ rate.
    It is called a CRUDE rate
  12. Descriptive statistics--
    Descriptive statistics--

    • Numerical summaries which describe an observed frequency distribution
    • (i.e., mean, median, variance, range, etc.).
  13. Inferential statistics--
    Inferential statistics--

    Sample statistics which estimate population statistics.
  14. Indicate the proper order of work in preparing a statistical report by numbering the order of work for the following:
    __ Selecting the cases
    __ Defining the problem
    __ Presenting the data
    __ Analyzing the data
    The proper order of work in preparing a statistical report is as follows:

    • 1. Defining the problem
    • 2. Selecting the cases
    • 3. Analyzing the data
    • 4. Presenting the data.
  15. Very complex detailed data can only be completely presented in a _______.

    Relationships in data can be emphasized more vividly by using a _______.
    Very complex detailed data can only be completely presented in a table.

    Relationships in data can be emphasized more vividly by using a graph.
  16. Indicate whether a table (T) or a graph (G) is the preferred method of presentation in the following situations:
    __ a. Frequency distribution by site, sex, race, and time period of all cancers in yourinstitution
    __ b. Survival trends over time by sex for lung cancer
     __c. Presentation by stage of disease of female breast cancer to illustrate a talk
    __ d. Detailed treatment distribution of cervical cancer for a doctor on the staff atyour hospital
    • Indicate whether a table (T) or a graph (G) in the following situations:
    • T a. Frequency distribution by site, sex, race, and time period of all cancers in yourinstitution
    • G b. Survival trends over time by sex for lung cancer
    • G c. Presentation by stage of disease of female breast cancer to illustrate a talk
    • T d. Detailed treatment distribution of cervical cancer for a doctor on the staff of yourhospital
  17. If your sample is too small, your ___________ may be faulty. 2 words
    If your sample is too small, your generalizations/conclusions may be faulty.
  18. Define what a Table is and what's included in a table:
    • A table is an orderly arrangement of values which groups data into classes.
    • Variables such as vital status, race, age, treatment, and stage of disease have a system of classification. V
  19. What are the four essential components of the title of a table or graph, all of which begin with"W"?
    1. ______
    2. ______
    3. ______
    4. ______
    • The four essential components in the title of any table or graph are:
    • 1. What
    • 2. Who
    • 3. Where
    • 4. When
  20. The best medium for presenting data for quick visualization is:
    [] A table
    [] A graph
    [] An abstract
    [] The medical record
    The best medium for presenting data for quick visualization is a graph.
  21. Indicate whether the following types of tables are reference (R) or summary (S) tables.
    a. Stage distribution for white females with breast cancer for your state in 1986
    b. Number and percent distribution of all cancer cases seen at your institution in 1986-87 by site, sex and age group
    c. Sex distribution of lung cancer from 1960-85 for your hospital
    The following table is a reference table (R) or a summary table (S).

    • S a. Stage distribution for white females with breast cancer for your state in 1986
    • R b. Number and percent distribution of all cancer cases seen at your institutionin 1986-87 by site, sex, stage, treatment, and age group
    • S c. Sex distribution of lung cancer from 1960-85 for your hospital
  22. If you wish to classify data according to two variables simultaneously, such as sex and age, prepare a ______ -way table with one variable appearing ______ and the other variable appearing ______.
    If you wish to classify data according to two characteristics simultaneously, such as, sex and age, prepare a two-way table with one characteristic appearing horizontally and the other characteristic appearing vertically.
  23. When a detailed cross-classification of more than two variables is to be presented in tabular form,list two possible methods of presentation.
    1.
    and
    2.
    1. A three-way or four-way classification table.

    2. More than one table.
  24. The basic form of a graph is by doing the follow:
    By plotting numbers in relation to two axes the Y-axis and the X-axis.
  25. What is the Y-axis?
    The Y-axis (vertical) is called the ordinate.
  26. What is the X-axis?
    The X-axis (horizontal) is called the abscissa.
  27. What is the TITLE on the graph?
    The TITLE must tell as simply as possible what the graph shows.

    Answer the 4-W questions.
  28. What is the LEGEND or KEY on the graph?
    • The LEGEND or KEY:
    • When several variables are included on the same graph, it is necessary to identify each line.
  29. What is the FOOTNOTE used for in a graph?
    FOOTNOTES:

    If the title, scale labels, and legend cannot explain everything in the graph, then footnotes should be used as in tables.
  30. What is and why should you use a SOURCE in a graph?
    SOURCE:

    The exact reference to an outside source should be given just as for tables.
  31. Types of Graphs

    Bar Graphs
    Bar graphs are particularly effective when you want to compare values between categories.
  32. There are two kinds of Time-Trend data:
    Point data which are taken at a specified instant of time

    Period data which cover an average or total over a specified period of time, such as a year or a 5-year time interval.
  33. If there are too many values in your data item for easy analysis, you may wish to group your data into ______ .
    If there are too many values in your array for easy analysis, you may wish to group your data into intervals.
  34. When data are grouped into intervals, we call these intervals _______ .
    When data are grouped into intervals, we call these intervals classes.
  35. If it is more important to you to know the relative number of patients in each class then it is to know the actual number of cases, use a ______ distribution
    If it is more important for you to know the relative number of patients in each class than it is to know the actual number of patients, use a percentage distribution.
  36. ______ graphs emphasize individual amounts, while ______ graphs emphasize general trends.
    Bar graphs emphasize individual amounts, while line graphs emphasize general trends.
  37. A frequency distribution shown in bar graph form is called a ______ .
    A frequency distribution shown in bar graph form is called a histogram.
  38. Match the type of graph on the left with the description on the right.
    1. Bar graph    a. The sum of the heights of the bars represents all the cases so no space is left between bars.
    2. Pie chart     b. Shows proportional parts of the whole in terms of degrees
    3. Histogram   c. Dots give the location and create the effect of density.
    4. Map            d. The individual heights of each bar represent a whole, so space isusually left between the bars.
    5. Frequency   e. A line graph which represents all eases polygon
    • d 1. Bar graph-- The individual heights of each bar represent a whole, sospace is usually left between bars.
    • b 2. Pie chart-- Shows proportional parts of the whole in terms of degrees
    • a 3. Histogram-- The sum of the heights of the bars represents all the cases so no space is left between bars.
    • c 4. Map-- Dots give the location and create the effect of density.
    • e 5. Frequency polygon-- A line graph which represents all cases
  39. The value of the frequency polygon over the histogram is:
    a. Component parts of the whole can be shown.
    b. It shows the distribution of all cases according to some variable.
    c. Several sets of data can be presented simultaneously.
    d. It shows trends over time.
    • It shows trends over time

    c. The value of the frequency polygon over the histogram is that several sets of data can be presented simultaneously.
  40. Pie charts are used:
    a. To compare two distributions.
    b. To illustrate how the whole is divided into segments.
    c. To create an impression of density.
    d. To emphasize general survival trends.
    • Pie charts are used:

    b. Pie charts are used to illustrate how the whole is divided into segments. They are not appropriate for a, c, and d.
  41. Match the type of scale on the left with effect on the right.

    1. Arithmetic scale      a. Rate of change
    2. Semilog scale          b. Absolute change
    • Match the type of scale:

    b 1. Arithmetic scale:    Absolute change

    a 2. Semilog scale:       Rate of change
  42. The survival time from diagnosis until death of seven cancer patients was as follows: 0, 2, 3, 5,5, 7 and 34 months.
    a. What was the mean survival time?
    b. What was the median survival time?
    ¢. What is the modal survival time?
    d. What was the range of survival times?
    The survival time from diagnosis until death of 7 cancer patients:

    • a. mean survival = 56/7 = 8 months
    • b. median = 5 months (middle value = 5)
    • c. mode = 5 months (two patients survived 5 months)
    • d. range = 34 months-0 months = 34 months.
  43. Which of the above measures of central tendency best describes the distribution of survival times?
    Choose the best answer mean, median or mode?

    The median is the best descriptor of central tendency in this case since it is not affected by the extreme value of 34 months. Six of the seven patients survived 7 months or less, yet the average survival was 8 months due to the one patient who survived for 34 months, an"extreme" for this group of patients.
  44. Descriptive cancer epidemiology is the ______ study of the of cancer in man.
    Descriptive cancer epidemiology is the study of the distribution of cancer in man
  45. In studying the distribution of cancer in man one measures the ______ of getting cancer or dying from it.
    In studying the distribution of cancer in man one measures the risk of getting cancer or dying from it.
  46. What measures of risk do we associate with the study of cancer?
    1. __________

    2. __________
    Two measures of risk associated with the study of cancer are:

    1. Morbidity

    2. Mortality
  47. How is the measure of risk expressed?
    The measure of risk is expressed in the form of a rate.
  48. What two components are required in order to calculate a rate?
    The two components which are required in order to express a rate are:

    1) number of disease occurrences or deaths

    2) number of people at risk of getting the disease
  49. Three measures of risk, two of which deal with morbidity and one of which deals with mortality,are:

    1. __________

    2. __________

    3. __________
    Three measures of risk, two of which deal with morbidity and one of which deals with mortality, are:

    1. Incidence rates

    2. Prevalence rates

    3. Mortality rates
  50. What is the difference between a CRUDE Incidence rate and an AGE-SPECIFIC Incidence rate?
    A CRUDE Incidence rate encompasses all newly diagnosed cases within a given time period regardless of Age.

    An AGE-SPECIFIC Incidence rate is specific for persons of a given age group.
  51. What is the difference between a CRUDE rate and an AGE-ADJUSTED rate?
    A CRUDE rate is based on the distribution of the actual total population at risk.

    An AGE ADJUSTED rate has been "adjusted" or "corrected" to take into account the difference in age distribution between two population groups.
  52. Survival can be measured in terms of survival
    ________ (average (mean) or median) or in terms of a survival ________.
    Survival can be measured in terms of survival time (average (mean) or median) or in terms of a survival rate.
  53. When you measure the survival of a patient group for a specific period of time after diagnosis, it is called an _____ _____ rate.
    It is called an....

    When you measure the survival of a patient group for a specific period of time after diagnosis, it is called an observed survival rate.
  54. When the calculation for an observed survival rate is done every time someone dies, that is called the ______ ______ ______ or sometimes the ______ ______ ______.
    When the calculation for an observed survival rate is done every time someone dies, that is called the Kaplan - Meier method or sometimes the product moment method.
  55. Observed survival rates underestimate survival from cancer because they group deaths from all causes in the calculations.
    Two other calculations you might be able to use are:

    1) 
    2)
    Observed survival rates underestimate survival from cancer because they group deaths from all causes in the calculations.

    Two other calculations you might be able to use are:

    1) the adjusted survival rate and

    2) the relative survival rate.
  56. The general forms that analytic epidemiologic studies may take are

    1)
    and
    2)
    The general forms that analytic epidemiologic studies may take are

    1) observational and

    2) experimental.
  57. A study in which a group of people without cancer, but characterized by a common exposure are identified and followed over a period of time to observe the development of cancer might be called a:

    1. __________ study
    2. __________ study

    Both of these are __________ studies.
    A study in which a group of people without cancer, but characterized by a common exposure are identified and followed over a period of time to observe the development of cancer, might be called a:

    1. COHORT study or

    2. PROSPECTIVE study.

    Both of these are OBSERVATIONAL studies.
  58. One group of people with cancer and another group of people without cancer, but otherwise similar, are selected and then compared for possible differences of exposure to carcinogenic agents in the past, might be called a:

    1. __________ study or
    2. __________ study

    These, too, are __________ studies.
    One group of people with cancer and another group of people without cancer, but otherwise similar, are selected and then compared for possible differences of exposure to carcinogenic agents in the past, might be called:

    1. RETROSPECTIVE study or

    2. CASE-CONTROL study.

    These, too, are OBSERVATIONAL studies.
  59. When an investigator studies the impact of some factor under his/her control on the natural history of disease, it is called an study.
    When an investigator studies the impact of some factor under his/her control on the natural history of disease, it is called an experimental study
  60. One of the strengths of a cohort group approach is (select one):
    1. Low cost of such studies.
    2. Exposure can be accurately recorded at time it happens.
    3. Long latency periods irrelevant.
    4. Diagnostic bias unlikely.
    One of the strengths of a cohort group approach is that

    (2) exposure can be accurately recorded at the time it happens.

    However, this approach is always costly, the latency period can be very long and, therefore, irrelevant, and diagnostic bias is likely.
  61. The basic measure of risk of disease associated with an exposure calculated from a case-control study is the ______ ______.
    The basic measure of risk of disease associated with an exposure calculated from a case control study is the odds ratio.
  62. When drawing conclusions about populations based on data from limited samples, the process is known as It is a concept we all use in our daily lives.
    page 187

    When drawing conclusions about populations based on data from limited samples, the process is known as statistical inference. It is a concept we all use in our daily lives.
  63. The normal curve is ______ bout the mean, also, the mean, median, and mode are ______. Only the width of the curve may vary depending on the spread of values outward from the mean in both directions.
    The normal curve is symmetrical about the mean, also the mean, median, and mode are identical. Only the width of the curve may vary depending on the spread of values outwardfrom the mean in both directions.
  64. The spread of values outward from the mean in both directions is called the ______ ______ such that 95 percent of the observations lie between the mean and _+1.96 ______ ______ from a normal distribution.
    The spread of values outward from the mean in both directions is called the standard deviation such the 95 percent of the observations lie between the mean and _+ 1.96 standard deviations from a normal distribution.
  65. What is the "MEAN"?
    The Mean is

    the arithmetic average is the sum of all the values, divided by the number of values
  66. What is the "MEDIAN"?
    The Median is

    the middle point or value or called "mid-point", sort by ranking order from smallest to the largest
  67. What is the "MODE"?
    What is the Mode

    the most frequently seen value
  68. Confounding effects are very common in clinical and epidemiological research and the best way to avoid them is through ______ ______.
    Confounding effects are very common in clinical and epidemiological research and the best way to avoid them is through random sampling
  69. Every individual in the study population has an equal and independent chance of beingselected in a ______ ______
    Every individual in the study population has an equal and independent chance of being selected in a random sample
  70. When data cannot be expressed in terms of discrete values, sample statistics can be calculated for ______ and ______.
    When data cannot be expressed in terms of discrete values, sample statistics can be calculated for proportions and rates.
  71. In research studies, a statement which claims a relationship between a study variable and an outcome variable is called a ______. You actually state that there is no difference,the ______ ______.
    In research studies, a statement which claims a relationship between a study variable and an outcome variable is called a hypothesis. You actually state that there is no difference,the null hypothesis.
  72. For the purpose of testing the null hypothesis that there is no difference between two sample means you apply the __ test.
    For the purpose of testing the null hypothesis that there is no difference between two sample means you apply the t test.
  73. For the purpose of testing the null hypothesis that there is no difference between two sample proportions you apply the __ test.
    For the purpose of testing the null hypothesis that there is no difference between two sample proportions you apply the z test.
  74. What is "Alternative Hypothesis"?
    What is "Alternative Hypothesis"

    Meaningful difference between groups the Ha rejecting the Null
  75. What is "Null Hypothesis"?
    What is "Null Hypothesis"

    No meaningful difference between groups the Ho
  76. What is "Standard deviation"?
    What is "Standard deviation"

    Square root of the variance
  77. What is "Range"?
    What is "Range"

    Is the difference between the upper and lower limits of a series of values

    * the easiest measure of variation
  78. What is "Variance"?
    What is "Variance"

    Average of the squared differences of the mean
  79. For the purpose of testing the null hypothesis that there is no difference between more than two means you apply the ____ ______ test
    For the purpose of testing the null hypothesis that there is no difference between more than two means you apply the chi square test
  80. What is "Qualitative data"?
    What is "Qualitative data"

    Categorical data being related groups 

    (i.e. nominal or ordinal data)
  81. What is "Quantitative data"?
    What is "Quantitative data"

    Continuous data variables are measurable

    (i.e. interval or ratio)

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