Vet Tech A&P Lab-Test 1

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  1. bone in penis of dog?
    os penis
  2. bone in heart of cow?
    os cordis
  3. 5 other animals with os penis
    • 1. walrus
    • 2. ferret
    • 3. guinea pig
    • 4. rabbit
    • 5. gorilla
  4. ____ cells are small, mitotic cells that divide to produce daughter cells that will eventually differentiate into ______
    Osteoprogenitor, Osteoblasts
  5. Once the osteoblast is surrounded by bone matrix, what is the cell referred to as?
    an Osteocyte
  6. the final type of cell that can be found within the bone structure and are responsible for the breakdown of and phagocytic action on the osteocytes?
  7. 5 functions of bone
    • 1. Support
    • 2. Protection
    • 3. Leverage
    • 4. Storage
    • 5. Blood cell formation
  8. What is the only other natural substance harder than bone?
  9. What is bone matrix composed of?
    • 1. Collagen
    • 2. Gelatin
    • 3. Osteoblasts
  10. What is Ossification?
    When Calcium and Phosphate (hydroxyapatite crystals) infiltrate and give bone its hardness.
  11. What is calcification?
    bone formation in soft tissue
  12. Where are Osteoblasts enclosed in?
  13. what means "small lakes"
  14. Once the Osteoblasts are surrounded by bone in their lacunae, the former osteoblasts get a new identity. WHat is it?
  15. Osteocytes will live out their lives in the lacunae, moving farther away from the edge of the bone until they are absorbed by a cell called what?
  16. Osteocytes in their lacunae communicate with one another through tiny channels called what?
  17. What are lacunae and Canaliculi together called?
    Interstitial Lamellae
  18. How do Osteocytes get their food in the lacunae?
    via blood by passing through the canaliculi
  19. WHat are the 2 main types of bone?
    • 1. Cancellous
    • 2. Compact
  20. 2 functions of Cancellous bone
    • 1. Keep bone light
    • 2. prevent bone damages due to forces
  21. 5 functions of compact bones
    • 1. Provide support and strength
    • 2. protection
    • 3. leverage for muscle attachment
    • 4. storage for minerals
    • 5. blood cell formation in medulla
  22. What is another name for the Haversian system?
    Osteonal System
  23. Osteons with their central canals run lengthwise with the compact structure consisting of layers of bone matrix around a central haversian canal
    Haversian System
  24. What part do the Canaliculi play in the haversian system?
    run horizontal and connect with each osteon and haversian canals allowing for transfer of nutrients and waste in the bone
  25. 4 Properties of bone?
    • 1. can be described as a vascular connective tissue
    • 2. has an extensive blood supply
    • 3. majority of bones have one nutrient artery and a vein, although some may have more.
    • 4. have a rich nerve supply
  26. What supplies the diaphysis of the long bones?
    The nutrient artery and vein
  27. What small holes do the vessels pass into through the bones to carry the blood supply to the haversian system?
  28. WHere is the nervous supply of bone primarily located?
    in the periosteum and branches travel with the artery into the cortex and other areas of the bone.
  29. What comes in at right to the haversian canals and join the blood vessel, nerves and lymph in the haversian canals?
    Volkmanns canals
  30. The larger blood vessels, nerves and lymph vessels enter through ____ _____ and journey all the way into the bone marrow.
    Nutrient foramina
  31. 2 ways of bone formation
    • 1. Endochondral (Intracartilaginous)
    • 2. Intromembranous (membrane)
  32. Explain Endochondral ossification.
    performed in cartilage; most common way in which the body creates a template of cartilage that is later mostly replaced by bone.
  33. Explain Intramembranous (membrane) Ossification.
    Only occurs in places with flat bone; here bone forms fibrous tissue membranes that cover the brain in the fetus. Bone will soon replace all of the fibrous tissue membrane
  34. 4 bone classifications
    • 1. Long
    • 2. Short
    • 3. Flat
    • 4. Irregular
  35. Name 5 long bones
    • 1. Humerus
    • 2. Femur
    • 3. Ulna
    • 4. Radius
    • 5. Tibia
  36. Name 5 Short bones
    • 1. Carpal
    • 2. Tarsal
    • 3. Long pastern
    • 4. Short pastern
    • 5. distal pastern
  37. Name 3 flat bones
    • 1. ribs
    • 2. skull
    • 3. scapula
  38. Name 2 Irregular bones
    • 1. sesamoid
    • 2. patella
  39. Cartilage located between the epiphysis and diaphysis becoming bone at point of puberty?
    Epiphyseal plates
  40. Flat bones consist of two thin plates of compact bone separated by cancellous bone called what?
  41. What is the largest sesamoid bone?
  42. What type of bone function to aid in leverage allowing tendon attachments from muscles increasing the mechanical advantage and thus strength?
  43. What is bone marrow (medullary cavity)?
    • Spaces within the bone
    • 1. area between the spicules of cancellous bone
    • 2. the large spaces within the diaphyses of long bone
  44. What are the 2 types of bone marrow and what is the difference?
    • 1. Red- Active producer of rbcs, wbcs and thrombocytes
    • 2. Yellow- aged marrow that can be reactivated in a time of stress of emergency
  45. What kind of tissue is Red bone marrow?
  46. What are joint surfaces, smooth areas of compact bone where bones come in contact with each other to form joints?
    Articular surface
  47. What is each articular surface covered by and what is it designed to do?
    by a smooth, thin layer of hyaline cartilage called atricular cartilage; designed to reduce friction and wear at the joint.
  48. Name 4 Articular surfaces
    • 1. Condyles
    • 2. Head
    • 3. Trochlea
    • 4. Facet
  49. The major ___ of the body are located on the distal end of the humerus and femur and on the occipital bone of the skull.
  50. A ___ is a somewhat spherical surface on the proximal end o a long bone. found on the proximal end of the humerus, femur and rib. connected to the long bone by a neck.
  51. The joint movement between two ____ is a kind of rocking motion. Found on many bones such as carpal and tarsal bones
  52. This is a pulley like articular mass; commonly found at the distal long bones like the humerus and the femur.
  53. are found outside the joints and are usually sites where muscles and tendons attach.
    Non- articular Processes
  54. Name 3 Non- Articular Depressions
    • 1. Foramen
    • 2. Fossa
    • 3. Canal
  55. a hole in the bone; usually important, such as a nerve or blood vessel, passes through it. 
    What is the exception?
    Foramen; exception is the obturator foramen that although the largest foramen in the body, only a small obturator nerve passes through it. The large hole is to lighten the weight
  56. a depressed or sunken area on the surface of a bone. usually occupied by a muscle or tendon.
  57. What do Paleontologist use the fossae of the dinosaur bones for?
    to infer the size and actions of some of the animals tendons and muscles
  58. a tunnel through one or more bones
  59. NAme 4 articular depressions
    • 1. Fovea
    • 2. Cotyloid Cavity
    • 3. Glenoid Cavity
    • 4. Notch
  60. a small depression ( may be articular or not) 
    give example
    Fovea; Fovea capitis on the head of the femur is for attachment of a ligament call the round ligament, designed to hold the head of the femur into the cotyloid depression and prevent luxations or dislocations
  61. a deep articular concavity found primarily between the femur and acetabulum of the pelvis; this type allows for total movement (ball and socket)
    Cotyloid Cavity
  62. a shallow articular concavity, very similar to the Cotyloid cavity; most commonly located between the humerus and the scapula
    Glenoid Cavity
  63. An indentation which may be articular or not
  64. What is included in the Axial Skeleton?
    • 1. Skull
    • 2. Hyoid bone
    • 3. Spinal column
    • 4. ribs
    • 5. Sternum
    • Also all of the bones of the axial skeleton lie on or near the median plane of the body
  65. What is the most complex part of skeleton?
  66. How many bones make up most domestic animals skulls?
    37 or 38 separate bones
  67. what are the bones of the skull united by?
  68. Only the _ is connected to the rest of the skull by freely movable synovial joint known as the TMJ what does this stand for?
    Mandible; Temporal mandibular joint
  69. What are the bones of the External Cranium and how many of each?
    Frontal (2), interparietal (2), occipital (1), parietal (2), and temporal (2)
  70. What are the bones of the External Ear and how many of each?
  71. What are the bones of the External Face and how many of each?
    Incisive (2), lacrimal (2), mandible (1 or 2), maxillary (2), nasal (2) and zygomatic (2)
  72. What are the bones of the Internal Cranium and how many of each?
    ethmoid bone (1) and sphenoid bone (1)
  73. What are the bones of the Internal Ear and how many of each?)
    Incus (2), malleus (2) and stapes (2)
  74. What are the bones of the Internal Face and how many of each?
    Palatine (2), Pterygoid (2), turbinates (4), and vomer (1)
  75. What is the portion of the skull that surrounds the brain?
  76. How many bones form the canium?
  77. single bone that bone that forms the "base" (caudoventral portion) of the skull. most caudal and important for 2 reasons which are?
    Occipital bone; 1. it is where the spinal cord exits the skull 2. it is the skull bone that articulates (forms a joint) with the first cervical vertebraa
  78. a large hole is in the center of the occipital called? On either side of this are the occipital condyles, articular surfaces at form the ____
    Foramen Magnum; Atlantooccipital Joint
  79. two small bones located on the dorsal midline between the occipital bone and the parietal bones
    Interparietal bones
  80. ____ bones are usually _____ in young animals. In older animals they may ____ ____ into one bone, or the may ___ to the parietal bones and become indistinguishable.
    Interparietal; visible; fuse together; fuse
  81. The two ___ bones from the dorsolateral walls of the cranium. large and well developed in the dog and can but are relatively small in horses and cattle
  82. located ventral to the parietal bones?
    Temporal bones
  83. 3 reasons Temporal bones are importante
    1. they form the wall of the cranium2. contain the middle and inner ear3. they form the TMJ with the mandible
  84. What is the only ear structure that is visible from the outside?
    external acoustic meatus
  85. the boney canal that leads into the middle and inner ear cavities?
    external acoustic meatus
  86. the "Forehead" region of the skull?
    Frontal bones
  87. What is contained within the frontal bone?
    a large paranasal sinus and frontal sinus
  88. What is the "horn core"
    in horned cattle, the cornual process of frontal bone around which the bone develops.
  89. What process in hollow and communicates with the frontal sinus?
    the Cornual process
  90. Name two hidden bones of the cranium
    Sphenoid bone, ethmoid bone
  91. this single bone forms the ventral part of the cranium and contains a depression called _____ ___ that houses what? this bone is located just rostral to the occipital bone.
    Sphenoid bone, Pituitary fossa houses the pituitary gland
  92. single bone located jsut rostral to the sphenoid bone. it contains the ___ _ through which the many branches of the olfactory nerve pass from the upper portion of the nasal cavity to the olfactory bulbs of the brain.
    Ethmoid bone, cribriform plate
  93. name the 3 ossicles and their nicknames. exterior to interior
    1. Malleus (hammer)2. Incus (anvil)3. Stapes (stirrup)
  94. Function of ossicles
    to transmit vibrations from the tympanic membrane (eardrum) across the middle ear cavity to an inner ear structure called the cochlea. in the cochlea, recepter cells for hearing conver the vibrations to nerve impulses that are interpreted by the brain as sound.
  95. sometimes called the premaxillary bones are the two most rostral in the skull. In all common domestic animals except ruminants, these bones house the upper incisor teeth
    incisive bone
  96. what do bones of the face make up?
    the rest of the skull
  97. what do ruminants have instead of upper incisor teeth?
    a hard dental pad
  98. two form the "bridge of the nose. the length of the animals face is the main influence on these
    Nasal bones
  99. Long face
  100. short face
  101. two make up most of the upper jaw. they house the upper canine teeth, if present, and all of the cheek teeth (pre molars and molar). Along with palatine bones, these form the hard palate, which is the bony separtaion between the mouth and the nasal cavity that we call the "roof of mouth"
    Maxillary bones
  102. the maxillary bones from the ___ portion of the hard palate, and the Palatine bones from the ___ part
    rostral, caudal
  103. two are small bones that form part of the medial portion of the orbit of the eye.
  104. A space within each lacrimal bone houses the ____ ___ in the living animal
    Lacrimal sac (part of the tear drainage system of the eye)
  105. two are also known as the malar bones. form a portion of the orbit of the eye and join with a process from the temporal bones to form the _______ on either side of skull
    Zygomatic bones; Zygomatic arches
  106. lower jaw; houses all the lower teeth and is the only movable skull bone. forms the TMJ with the temporal bone on each side.
  107. What is a Mandibular symphyseal fracture?
    In some species such as dogs, cats, cattle the two sides of the mandible are separate bones that are united by a cartilaginous joint, the mandibular symphysis, at their rostral ends. Because the symphysis is the weakest part of mandible, separation can occur at site from blunt force trauma to face.
  108. In __ ____ and __ the two halves of the mandible fuse together into one solid bone.
    Adult horses and swine
  109. two main regions of mandible
    shaft and ramus
  110. the mental foramen is at the ___ end of the shaft of mandible
  111. two small bones support part of the lateral walls of the pharynx
    Pterygoid bones
  112. are two and make up the caudal portion of the hard palate. the palate separate the mouth from the nasal cavity. The rest of the hard palate is made up of part of the maxillary bones
    Palatine bones
  113. single bone located on the midline of the skull and forms part of the nasal septum- the central "wall" between the left and right nasal passages
    vomer bone
  114. also called nasal conchae. they are four thin scroll like bones that fill most of the space in hte nasal cavity
  115. bone that supports the base of the tongue, the pharynx, and larynx and helps the animal swallow
    hyoid apparatus
  116. how many bones make up the hyoid apparatus
    16-17, all have individual names
  117. what is made up of a series of individual irregular bones called vertebrae that extend from skull to tail
    vertebral column
  118. the vertebral column is divided into 5 regions named what?
    • 1. cercical
    • 2. thorax
    • 3. lumbar
    • 4. sacral
    • 5. coccygeal caudal
  119. a typical vertebrae consists of what?
    a body, arch, group of processes
  120. bodies of adjacent vertebrae are separated by little cartilage "shock absorbers" called ?
    vertebral disks
  121. 'Dorsal to the body of a vertebra is a hollow arch, when the arches of all the vertebrae are lined up, they form a long, flexible "tunnel" called the ___ ____ that houses and protects the spinal cord.
    spinal canal
  122. a single dorsally projecting process
    Spinous process
  123. there are two laterally projecting bone and vary in size among vertebrae and act as sites for muscle attachment and leverage to move the spine and trunk.
    Transverse process
  124. located on the cranial and caudal ends of the vertebral arches and help form the joints between adjacent vertebrae. aka Pre and Post Zygopophysis.
    Articular processes
  125. cat/dog vertebral formula
    C7, T13, L7, Sacral 3, Coccygeal 0-23
  126. Cattle Vertebral Formula
    C7, T13, L6, Sacral 6, Coccygeal 18-20
  127. Horse Vertebral Formula
    C7, T18, L6, Sacral 5, Coccygeal 15-21
  128. the ___ is distinctive in that it has two large , wing like tranverse processes that can be palpated just behind the skulls of most animals. Also has no vertebral body. just consists of a bony ring that the spinal cord passes through. C1
  129. C2; most prominent features are its lg bladelike spinous process that projects up dorsally and the peg like "dens" (odontoid process) that fits into the caudal end of the atlas
  130. Most characteristic features of thoracic vertebrae are?
    their tall spinous processes and their lateral articular facets, which form joints with heads of the ribs
  131. the number of thoracic vertebrae is the same as the number of ___ of __ the animals has
    pairs of ribs
  132. located dorsal to the thorax
    thoracic vertebrae
  133. dorsal to the abdominal region
    lumbar vertebrae
  134. most massive looking bones of the spinal column. bodies lg and bulky bc they have to support all the weight of the abdominal argans and structures without the aid of the ribs
    Lumbar Vertebrae
  135. vertebrae that fuse to form a single solid structure- the sacrum?
    Sacral vertebrae
  136. located dorsal to the pelvic region and forms a joint with the pelvis on each side- the sacroiliac joint
  137. bones of the tail
    coccygeal vertebrae
  138. In humans the coccygeal vertebrae are fused into a single bone called the?
    coccyx (4 vertebrae) or what we commonly call our tailbone
  139. Each rib has what two parts?
    • 1. a dorsal part made of bone 
    • 2. a ventral part made of cartilage
  140. what is the cartilage part of the rib called?
    Costal Cartilage, and its junction with the bony part is called the Costo- chondral junction
  141. The ribs whose cartilage join the sternum are called? make up the cranial part of the thorax
    sternal ribs
  142. The ribs that join the adjacent costal cartilage are called? make up the caudal part of the thorax
    asternal ribs
  143. "nonattached" ribs
    floating or false ribs
  144. aka the breastbone forms the floor of thorax
  145. The sternum is made up of a series of rod-like bones called?
  146. the first and most cranial sternebrae?
  147. the last and most caudal sternebrae?
  148. A piece of cartilage that extends caudally from the xiphoid process and is easily felt in most animals at the caudal end of the sternum.
    xiphoid cartilage
  149. What is the front leg called?
    Thoracic Limb
  150. What is the hind limb called?
    Pelvic limb
  151. In common domestic animals the ____ ___ has no direct bony connection with axial skeleton.
    Thoracic limb
  152. What is the most proximal bone of the thoracic limb?
  153. The humerus is the long bone of the "upper arm" or ___
  154. What is the "Funny bone"
    Ulna Nerve
  155. Two bones form the "forearm" or _____. what are they?
    antebrachium; radius and ulna
  156. a pathological problem that results when a dog jumps down and lands on a straightened front leg. The anconeal process will break at epiphyseal junctions leaving a "joint mouse" to float in the elbow joint. Painful as it is, the dog will limp carrying the affected leg.
    Ununited Anconeal Process
  157. The carpus consists of __ rows of short bones- the carpal bones. These rows of bones are arranged parallel to each other in a ____ row and a ___ row.
    2, proximal and distal
  158. the bones of the proximal row of the carpus are given individual names. Name them medial to lateral.
    a. radial carpal bone b. ulna carpal bone c. accessory carpal bone. ; some species also have an intermediate carpal bone.
  159. The bones of the ___ row of the carpus are given numbers starting medial side and working laterally.
  160. Horses have only one digit the ____ Metacarpal, known as ____; and two vestigial metacarpal bones the __&__ (medially) known as the ____ bones
    3rd metacarpal known as the cannon bone; 2nd &4th metacarpal bones known as the splint bones
  161. Cattle walk on ___ ___; they are the _&_ metacarpal bone
    two toes; 3rd&4th but they are fused together into a single bone
  162. What is Metacarpal I on the front paws of dogs and cats?
  163. Each digit is made up of two or three bones called
  164. The Horse has __ digit on each limb composed of ___ phalanges and ___ sesamoid bones.
    1 digit, 3 phalanges and 3 sesamoid bones
  165. In the Horse, what is the Proximal Phalanx?
    Long pastern
  166. In the Horse, what is the Middle Phalanx?
    Short Pastern
  167. In the Horse, what is the Distal Phalanx
    Coffin bone
  168. The digit of the horse also contains two proximal sesamoid bone and one distal sesamoid bone. the two proximal sesamoid bones are located behind the joint between the large metacarpal bone and the proximal phalanx in the large digital flexor tendons. what is the joint?
    fetlock joint
  169. The distal sesamoid bone is located deep in the hoof behind the joint between the middle and distal phalanges where the digital flexor tendon attaches to the distal phalanx. What is it called?
    Navicular bone
  170. Cattle have _ digits on each limb; _ that support weight ( which ones) and _ that are vestiges (which ones) what are these called?
    4 digits; 2 support weight the 3rd and 4th; 2 that are vestiges the 2nd and 5th called the dewclaws. (each of these contains one or two small bones that do not articulate with the rest of the bones of the foot)
  171. How many bones are in the dewclaw and what are they?
    2; a proximal phalanx and distal phalanx
  172. How many bones do digits 2 and 5 contain? what are they?
    3; 1.proximal phalanx 2. middle phalanx 3. distal phalanx
  173. Unlike the thoracic limb, the pelvic limb is directly connected to the axial skeleton through the ___ ___ that unites the pelvis with spinal column.
    Sacroiliac joint
  174. The pelvis under the influence of what hormone will relax to allow the pelvic inlet to expand for the impending entry of the newborn fetus.
  175. The pelvis is anatomically referred to as what?
    Os Coxae
  176. What are the three bones that make up the Os Coxae?
    • 1. The ilium
    • 2. The ischium
    • 3. The Pubis
  177. What is the Largest of the Os Coxae?
  178. What special feature does the ilium have?
    the tuber coxae projects laterally and is called the "point" of the hip. In cattle it is called the "hook bone".
  179. What is the caudal-most pelvic bone?
  180. WHat is the ischial tuberosity also know as?
    "Pin bone"
  181. What is the smallest of the 3 pelvic bones?
  182. What are two small sesamoid bones located in the proximal gastrocnemius muscle just above and behind the femoral condyles of dogs and cats. not present in cattle or horses.
  183. What are the two largest proximal tarsal bones?
    Tibial tarsal bone (talus) and the Fibular tarsal bone (calcaneous)
  184. has a large trochlea that articulates with the distal end of the tibia to form the most movable part of the hock joint.
    Tibial tarsal bone
  185. of the fibular tarsal bone projects upward and backward to form the point of the hock. It acts as the point of attachment for the tendon of the large gastrocnemius muscle and corresponds to our heel.
    calcaneal tuberosity
  186. What is the only major difference of tarsal bones that carpal bones?
    In dogs and cats there are only 4 digits instead of 5
  187. bone in nose of pig
    Os Rostri
  188. What 3 things give off Osteoblasts and are actually responsible for the width of the bone
    • 1. Periosteum
    • 2. Endosteum
    • 3. Haversian Canals
  189. What is the part of the Epiphyseal plate that is responsible for the growth?
  190. Cat front paw
  191. cats hind paw
  192. Name 4 Nutritional bone Complications.
    • 1. Rickets
    • 2. Osteomalacia
    • 3. hypervitaminosis A
    • 4. Scurvy (Ascorbic Acid Def)
  193. What effects young dogs and is due to a deficiency of mineralization of bone and cartilage. in turn due to a lack of calcium and phosphorus in the diet.
  194. 4 causes of rickets
    • 1. decrease in the calcium and phosphorus in take from the diet
    • 2. ratio of calcium and phosphorus is not but instead is allowed to go to 1:1
    • 3. inability to absorb minerals due to a deficiency in Vit D
    • 4. Gut abnormalities that effect absorption
  195. Where do we get Vitamin D?
    Ultraviolet rays convert vit D3 in skin into Vit D1 for the Gut
  196. Aka adult rickets
  197. major site of osteogenesis in the young animal rests in the ___ and so the signs are more dramatic in the ___ ___.
    Epiphysis; growth plate
  198. Lack of mineralization of the osteoid is the adult skeleton has its effect just beneath the ____ and ____ since continual remodeling occurs here throughout life.
    Periosteum, endosteum
  199. A disease in cats which consumes large amounts of raw liver
    Hypervitaminosis A
  200. Pathologies from hypervitaminosis A
    Cervical and thoracic bridging exostosis and limb ankylosis at elbow
  201. bridging of vertebrae
    Ankylosis, spondylosis
  202. a deficiency of ascorbic acid brought on by a non-complete or balanced diet
    Scurvy (Ascorbic Acid deficiency)
  203. Vitamin C is essential in the formation of the ___ and ___ in connective tissue.
    Osteoid and Dentine
  204. Signs of scurvy seen in what 2 places.
    • 1.Epiphyseal plates of long bones
    • 2. Costochondral junctions
  205. a specific type of dwarfism which is inherited and congenital, affecting epiphyseal growth and maturation.
  206. 4 signs of Achondroplasia
    • 1. Widening of the ends of long bones
    • 2. hydrocephalus
    • 3. brachycephaly
    • 4. prognathism
  207. What type of gene is Prognathism?
    Mendelian dominant and considered as abonormal
  208. Name 4 Diseases of the Epiphyses.
    • 1. Achondroplasia
    • 2. Osteochondritis dissecans OCD
    • 3. Ununited Anconeal Process
    • 4. Calve-Legg Perthes Disease
  209. direct result of epiphyseal ischemia necrosis in which a small segment of subchondral bone in the bony epiphysis of the head of the humerus is involved.
    Osteochondritis dissecans
  210. Cause of Osteochondritis dissecans
    Trauma/inheritance facters
  211. The condition of Osteochondritis dissecans is a direct result of ____ ____ ____.
    Epiphyseal ischemia necrosis
  212. AKA Osteochondrosis Deformans Juvenilis
    Calve-Legg Perthes Disease
  213. similar to Osteochondritis dissecans except that it involves the entire head of the femur and not just a small bone sub-chondral area of the front leg.
    Calve-Legg Perthes Disease
  214. Cause of Calve-Legg Perthes Disease
    Epiphyseal ischemia with necrosis of the entire head and neck of the femur
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Vet Tech A&P Lab-Test 1
2013-09-19 20:51:16
Vet Tech

A&P Lab
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